Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean
Blue Marble Eastern Hemisphere.jpg
A composite satellite image centred on the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean surface.jpg
The ocean-floor of the Indian Ocean is divided by spreading ridges and crisscrossed by aseismic structures
LocationIndian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Western Asia, Northeast Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and Australia
Coordinates20°S 80°E / 20°S 80°E / -20; 80
TypeOcean
Max. length9,600 km (6,000 mi) (Antarctica to Bay of Bengal)[1]
Max. width7,600 km (4,700 mi) (Africa to Australia)[1]
Surface area68,556,000 km2 (26,470,000 sq mi)
Average depth3,741 m (12,274 ft)
Max. depth7,258 m (23,812 ft)
Shore length166,526 km (41,337 mi)[2]
SettlementsDurban, Mumbai, Perth, Colombo, Padang, Maputo
References[3]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) (19.8% of the water on the Earth's surface).[4] It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.[5]

Scientifically, the Indian Ocean remained poorly explored before the International Indian Ocean Expedition in the early 1960s. The Challenger expedition 1872–1876 only reported from south of the polar front. The Valdivia expedition 1898–1899 made deep samples in the Indian Ocean. In the 1930s, the John Murray Expedition mainly studied shallow-water habitats. The Swedish Deep Sea Expedition 1947–1948 also sampled the Indian Ocean on its global tour and the Danish Galathea sampled deep-water fauna from Sri Lanka to South Africa on its second expedition 1950–1952. The Soviet research vessel Vityaz also did research in the Indian Ocean.[1]

Etymology

A 1747 map of Africa with the Indian Ocean referred to as the Eastern Ocean
A 1658 naval map by Janssonius depicting the Indian Ocean, India and Arabia.

The Indian Ocean is named after India (Oceanus Orientalis Indicus) since at least 1515. India, then, is the Greek/Roman name for the "region of the Indus River".[6]

Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was also known earlier as the Eastern Ocean, a term was still in use during the mid-18th century (see map).[6] Conversely, when China explored the Indian Ocean in the 15th century they called it the "Western Oceans".[7]

In Ancient Greek geography the region of the Indian Ocean known to the Greeks was called the Erythraean Sea.[8]

A relatively new concept of an "Indian Ocean World" and attempts to rewrite its history has resulted in new proposed names, such as 'Asian Sea' and 'Afrasian Sea'.[9]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Индиэ Хышхуэ
адыгабзэ: Хышхо Инд
Afrikaans: Indiese Oseaan
Alemannisch: Indischer Ozean
Ænglisc: Indisc Gārsecg
aragonés: Ocián Indico
অসমীয়া: ভাৰত মহাসাগৰ
asturianu: Océanu Índicu
Avañe'ẽ: Paraguasu Índiko
azərbaycanca: Hind okeanı
Bân-lâm-gú: Ìn-tō͘-iûⁿ
Basa Banyumasan: Samudra Hindia
башҡортса: Һинд океаны
беларуская: Індыйскі акіян
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Індыйскі акіян
भोजपुरी: हिंद महासागर
Bikol Central: Kadagatan Indio
български: Индийски океан
Boarisch: Indischa Ozean
bosanski: Indijski okean
brezhoneg: Meurvor Indez
català: Oceà Índic
Чӑвашла: Инди океанĕ
čeština: Indický oceán
Cymraeg: Cefnfor India
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހިންދު ކަނޑު
dolnoserbski: Indiski ocean
español: Océano Índico
Esperanto: Hinda Oceano
estremeñu: Océanu Índicu
Fiji Hindi: Indian Ocean
føroyskt: Indiska Havið
français: Océan Indien
Gàidhlig: Cuan Innseanach
ГӀалгӀай: ХIиндий океан
贛語: 印度洋
Gĩkũyũ: Indian Ocean
ગુજરાતી: હિંદ મહાસાગર
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-thu-yòng
한국어: 인도양
Hawaiʻi: Moana ʻIniana
Արեւմտահայերէն: Հնդկական Ովկիանոս
hornjoserbsce: Indiski ocean
hrvatski: Indijski ocean
Ilokano: Taaw Indiano
Bahasa Indonesia: Samudra Hindia
interlingua: Oceano Indian
íslenska: Indlandshaf
italiano: Oceano Indiano
къарачай-малкъар: Индий океан
қазақша: Үнді мұхиты
Kiswahili: Bahari ya Hindi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Endyen (oseyan)
Кыргызча: Инди океаны
кырык мары: Инди океан
latviešu: Indijas okeāns
Lëtzebuergesch: Indeschen Ozean
Limburgs: Indische Oceaan
lingála: India (lombú)
Lingua Franca Nova: Mar Indian
Livvinkarjala: Indien valdumeri
la .lojban.: xindo braxamsi
lumbaart: Ucean Indian
македонски: Индиски Океан
მარგალური: ინდოეთიშ ოკიანე
مازِرونی: هند اوقیانوس
Bahasa Melayu: Lautan Hindi
Minangkabau: Lautan Hindia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Éng-dô-iòng
Mirandés: Ouceano Índico
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အိန္ဒိယသမုဒ္ဒရာ
Nederlands: Indische Oceaan
नेपाल भाषा: हिन्द महासागर
日本語: インド洋
Napulitano: Oceano Indiano
Nordfriisk: Indisk Oosean
Norfuk / Pitkern: Indien Oshen
norsk: Indiahavet
norsk nynorsk: Indiahavet
occitan: Ocean Indian
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hind okeani
Papiamentu: Oceano Indiko
Перем Коми: Инда океан
ភាសាខ្មែរ: មហាសមុទ្រឥណ្ឌា
Piemontèis: Océan Indian
português: Oceano Índico
Qaraqalpaqsha: Hind okeanı
qırımtatarca: İnd okeanı
română: Oceanul Indian
rumantsch: Ocean Indic
русиньскый: Індійскый океан
саха тыла: Ииндийэ далайа
Gagana Samoa: Vasa Initia
संस्कृतम्: हिन्दुमहासागरः
Sesotho sa Leboa: Indian Ocean
sicilianu: Ocèanu Innianu
Simple English: Indian Ocean
slovenčina: Indický oceán
slovenščina: Indijski ocean
ślůnski: Indyjski Uocean
Soomaaliga: Badweynta Hindiya
српски / srpski: Индијски океан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indijski ocean
Taqbaylit: Agaraw Ahendi
tarandíne: Oceane Indiane
татарча/tatarça: Һинд океаны
Türkçe: Hint Okyanusu
Türkmençe: Hindi okeany
тыва дыл: Индий океан
українська: Індійський океан
اردو: بحر ہند
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندى ئوكيان
Vahcuengh: Yinduyangz
vepsän kel’: Indine valdmeri
Tiếng Việt: Ấn Độ Dương
Volapük: Lindean
文言: 印度洋
吴语: 印度洋
Yorùbá: Òkun Índíà
粵語: 印度洋
žemaitėška: Indėjės ondėnīns
中文: 印度洋