Republic of India
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" (Hindi)[2]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[3][2]
National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
CapitalNew Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133; 77.2083
Largest cityMumbai
18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18°58′30″N 72°49′33″E / 18.97500; 72.82583
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National languageNone[8][9][10]
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional socialist[12]
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
Narendra Modi
Dipak Misra
Sumitra Mahajan
LegislatureParliament of India
Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
Lok Sabha (House of the People)
Independence from the United Kingdom
15 August 1947
26 January 1950
• Total
3,287,263[5] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[d] (7th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
1,324,171,354[13] (2nd)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977[14][15] (2nd)
• Density
396.5/km2 (1,026.9/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$10.385 trillion[16] (3rd)
• Per capita
$7,783[16] (116th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.848 trillion[16] (5th)
• Per capita
$2,134[16] (133rd)
Gini (2013)33.9[17]
medium · 79th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.624[18]
medium · 131st
CurrencyIndian rupee () (INR)
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
DST is not observed
Date formatDD-MM-YYYY
Drives on theleft
Calling code+91
ISO 3166 codeIN

India, officially the Republic of India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE — one of the world's earliest civilizations.[19][g] In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Large-scale urbanization occurred on the Ganges in the first millennium BCE leading to the Mahajanapadas, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya, Satavahana and Gupta empires; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as Southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The country was unified in the 17th century by the Mughal Empire. In the 18th century, the subcontinent came under the Maratha Empire and in the 19th under the British East India Company, later shifting to British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947.

In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.[16] Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. India is widely recognized for its wide cinema, rich cuisine and lush wildlife and vegetation. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.


The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu.[20] The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.[21] The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".[22]

The geographical term Bharat (Bhārat, pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət̪] (About this sound listen)), which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country,[23] is used by many Indian languages in its variations. It is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.[24][25] Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bhāratas in the second millennium BCE.[26] It is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata.[27] The Hindu text Skanda Purana states that the region was named "Bharat" after Bharata Chakravartin. Gaṇarājya (literally, people's State) is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for "republic" dating back to ancient times.[28][29][30]

Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] (About this sound listen)) is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century BCE. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety.[24][25][31] Currently, the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.[31]

Other Languages
Acèh: India
Адыгэбзэ: Индиэ
адыгабзэ: Индие
Afrikaans: Indië
Akan: India
Alemannisch: Indien
አማርኛ: ህንድ
Ænglisc: Indea
العربية: الهند
aragonés: India
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܗܢܕܘ
armãneashti: India
arpetan: Ende
অসমীয়া: ভাৰত
asturianu: India
Avañe'ẽ: Índia
Aymar aru: Indya
azərbaycanca: Hindistan
تۆرکجه: هیندوستان
বাংলা: ভারত
Bahasa Banjar: India
Bân-lâm-gú: Ìn-tō͘
Basa Banyumasan: India
башҡортса: Һиндостан
беларуская: Індыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Індыя
भोजपुरी: भारत
Bikol Central: Indya
Bislama: India
български: Индия
Boarisch: Indien
བོད་ཡིག: རྒྱ་གར།
bosanski: Indija
brezhoneg: India
буряад: Энэдхэг
català: Índia
Чӑвашла: Инди
Cebuano: Indya
čeština: Indie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: India
Chi-Chewa: India
chiShona: India
chiTumbuka: India
corsu: India
Cymraeg: India
dansk: Indien
davvisámegiella: India
Deitsch: India
Deutsch: Indien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިންޑިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Indiska
ཇོང་ཁ: རྒྱ་གར
eesti: India
Ελληνικά: Ινδία
español: India
Esperanto: Barato
estremeñu: La Índia
euskara: India
eʋegbe: India
فارسی: هند
Fiji Hindi: India
føroyskt: India
français: Inde
Frysk: Yndia
furlan: Indie
Gaeilge: An India
Gaelg: Yn Injey
Gagauz: İndiya
Gàidhlig: Na h-Innseachan
galego: India
贛語: 印度
Gĩkũyũ: India
گیلکی: هند
ગુજરાતી: ભારત
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: भारत
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-thu
한국어: 인도
Hausa: Indiya
Hawaiʻi: ‘Īnia
Հայերեն: Հնդկաստան
हिन्दी: भारत
hornjoserbsce: Indiska
hrvatski: Indija
Ido: India
Igbo: Ndia
Ilokano: India
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ভারত
Bahasa Indonesia: India
interlingua: India
Interlingue: India
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐃᓐᑎᐊ
Ирон: Инди
isiXhosa: IIndia
isiZulu: India
íslenska: Indland
italiano: India
עברית: הודו
Basa Jawa: Indhi
kalaallisut: India
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಭಾರತ
Kapampangan: India
къарачай-малкъар: Индия
ქართული: ინდოეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: بًارت
kaszëbsczi: Indie
қазақша: Үндістан
kernowek: Eynda
Kinyarwanda: Ubuhinde
Kirundi: Ubuhindi
Kiswahili: Uhindi
коми: Индия
Kongo: India
Kreyòl ayisyen: End
kurdî: Hindistan
Кыргызча: Ындыя
Ladino: India
лезги: Индия
لۊری شومالی: هاٛن
latgaļu: Iņdeja
Latina: India
latviešu: Indija
Lëtzebuergesch: Indien
lietuvių: Indija
Ligure: India
Limburgs: India
lingála: India
Livvinkarjala: Indii
la .lojban.: xingu'e
lumbaart: India
magyar: India
मैथिली: भारत
македонски: Индија
Malagasy: India
മലയാളം: ഇന്ത്യ
Malti: Indja
Māori: Īnia
मराठी: भारत
მარგალური: ინდოეთი
مصرى: الهند
مازِرونی: هند
Bahasa Melayu: India
Baso Minangkabau: India
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Éng-dô
Mirandés: Índia
мокшень: Индие
монгол: Энэтхэг
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အိန္ဒိယနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: India
Dorerin Naoero: Indjiya
Nederlands: India
Nedersaksies: India
नेपाली: भारत
नेपाल भाषा: भारत
日本語: インド
Napulitano: Innia
нохчийн: ХӀинди
Nordfriisk: Indien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Endya
norsk: India
norsk nynorsk: India
Nouormand: Înde
Novial: India
occitan: Índia
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଭାରତ
Oromoo: Indiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hindiston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਭਾਰਤ
पालि: भारत
پنجابی: ھندستان
Papiamentu: India
پښتو: هند
Patois: India
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឥណ្ឌា
Picard: Inde
Piemontèis: India
Tok Pisin: India
Plattdüütsch: Indien
polski: Indie
português: Índia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Hindistan
qırımtatarca: İndistan
reo tahiti: ’Inītia
română: India
Romani: Bharat
rumantsch: India
Runa Simi: Indya
русиньскый: Індія
русский: Индия
саха тыла: Индия
Gagana Samoa: Igitia
संस्कृतम्: भारतम्
Sängö: Indïi
sardu: Ìndia
Scots: Indie
Seeltersk: Indien
Sesotho: India
Sesotho sa Leboa: India
shqip: India
sicilianu: Innia
Simple English: India
سنڌي: ڀارت
SiSwati: INdiya
slovenčina: India
slovenščina: Indija
ślůnski: Indyje
Soomaaliga: Hindiya
کوردی: ھیندستان
Sranantongo: Indiakondre
српски / srpski: Индија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indija
Basa Sunda: India
suomi: Intia
svenska: Indien
Tagalog: India
தமிழ்: இந்தியா
Taqbaylit: Lhend
tarandíne: Indie
татарча/tatarça: Һиндстан
తెలుగు: భారత దేశము
tetun: Índia
ትግርኛ: ህንድ
тоҷикӣ: Ҳиндустон
lea faka-Tonga: ʻInitia
ತುಳು: ಭಾರತ
Türkçe: Hindistan
Türkmençe: Hindistan
Twi: India
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Indiɛn
удмурт: Индия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: India
українська: Індія
اردو: بھارت
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندىستان
Vahcuengh: Yindu
vèneto: India
vepsän kel’: Indii
Tiếng Việt: Ấn Độ
Volapük: Lindän
Võro: India
walon: Inde
文言: 印度
West-Vlams: Indië
Winaray: India
Wolof: End
吴语: 印度
Xitsonga: Indiya
ייִדיש: אינדיע
Yorùbá: Índíà
粵語: 印度
Zazaki: Hindıstan
Zeêuws: India
žemaitėška: Indėjė
中文: 印度
डोटेली: भारत
Kabɩyɛ: Ɛndɩ