The incumbent is the current holder of an office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the 2017 Hungarian presidential election, János Áder was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the term before the term for which the election sought to determine the president. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an open seat.


The word "incumbent" is derived from the Latin verb incumbere, literally meaning "to lean or lay upon" with the present participle stem incumbent-, "leaning a variant of encumber,[1] while encumber is derived from the root cumber,[2] most appropriately defined: "To occupy obstructively or inconveniently; to block fill up with what hinders freedom of motion or action; to burden, load."[3]

Other Languages
العربية: شاغل المنصب
भोजपुरी: पदस्थ
dansk: Incumbent
Deutsch: Amtsinhaber
فارسی: متصدی
हिन्दी: पदस्थ
Igbo: Incumbent
Bahasa Indonesia: Petahana
Jawa: Palinggih
kurdî: Wezîfedar
मैथिली: पदस्थ
मराठी: विद्यमान
مصرى: حالى
Bahasa Melayu: Penyandang
नेपाली: बहालवाला
norsk: Incumbent
português: Incumbente
Scots: Incumbent
Simple English: Incumbent
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Inkumbent
svenska: Inkumbent
Tiếng Việt: Đương nhiệm