Immanuel Kant

  • immanuel kant
    kant gemaelde 3.jpg
    portrait by johann gottlieb becker, 1768
    born(1724-04-22)22 april 1724
    königsberg, kingdom of prussia
    (present-day kaliningrad, russia)
    died12 february 1804(1804-02-12) (aged 79)
    königsberg, kingdom of prussia
    nationalityprussian
    educationcollegium fridericianum
    university of königsberg
    (b.a.; m.a., april 1755; phd, september 1755; phd,[1] august 1770)
    eraage of enlightenment
    regionwestern philosophy
    school
    • kantianism
    • enlightenment philosophy
    • german idealism[2]
    • foundationalism[3]
    • metaphysical conceptualism[4]
    • perceptual non-conceptualism[5][6]
    • transcendental idealism
    • empirical realism
    • indirect realism[7]
    • correspondence theory of truth[8]
    • liberal naturalism[9]
    • kantian ethics
    • classical liberalism
    institutionsuniversity of königsberg
    theses
    • principiorum primorum cognitionis metaphysicae nova dilucidatio (a new elucidation of the first principles of metaphysical cognition) (september 1755)
    • de mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis (dissertation on the form and principles of the sensible and the intelligible world) (august 1770)
    academic advisorsmartin knutzen, johann gottfried teske (m.a. advisor), konrad gottlieb marquardt[10]
    notable studentsjakob sigismund beck, johann gottlieb fichte, johann gottfried herder
    main interests
    • epistemology
    • metaphysics
    • ethics
    • aesthetics
    • cosmogony
    notable ideas
    • abstract–concrete distinction[11]
    • aestheticteleological judgments
    • analytic–synthetic distinction
    • categorical and hypothetical imperative
    • categories
    • cosmotheology
    • critical philosophy
    • copernican revolution in philosophy
    • disinterested delight
    • empirical realism
    • kant's antinomies
    • kant's pitchfork
    • kingdom of ends
    • mathematical vs. dynamical sublimity[12]
    • nebular hypothesis
    • noogony and noology
    • noumenon vs. thing-in-itself
    • ontotheology
    • primacy of practical reason[13]
    • public reason
    • rechtsstaat
    • sapere aude
    • transcendental schema
    • theoretical vs. practical philosophy
    • transcendental idealism
    • transcendental theology
    • understanding–reason distinction
    signature
    immanuel kant signature.svg

    immanuel kant (uk: t/,[16][17] us: t/;[18][19] german: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl ˈkant, -nu̯ɛl -];[20][21] 22 april 1724 – 12 february 1804) was an influential prussian german philosopher[22] in the age of enlightenment. in his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable.[23][24] in his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features. he drew a parallel to the copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori ('beforehand'), and that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality.[25] kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of epistemology, ethics, political theory, and post-modern aesthetics.

    in one of kant's major works, the critique of pure reason (1781),[26] he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as david hume. kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists,[27] and is widely held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought.[28]

    kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned.[29] the nature of kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for god, to more critical treatments epitomized by schopenhauer, who criticized the imperative form of kantian ethics as "theological morals" and the "mosaic decalogue in disguise"[30] and nietzsche, who claimed that kant had "theologian blood"[31] and was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional christian faith.[a]

    kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. these include the universal natural history (1755), the critique of practical reason (1788), the metaphysics of morals (1797), the critique of judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology, and religion within the bounds of bare reason (1793).

  • biography
  • philosophy
  • influence
  • bibliography
  • see also
  • notes
  • references and footnotes
  • further reading
  • external links

Immanuel Kant
Kant gemaelde 3.jpg
Portrait by Johann Gottlieb Becker, 1768
Born(1724-04-22)22 April 1724
Died12 February 1804(1804-02-12) (aged 79)
NationalityPrussian
EducationCollegium Fridericianum
University of Königsberg
(B.A.; M.A., April 1755; PhD, September 1755; PhD,[1] August 1770)
EraAge of Enlightenment
RegionWestern philosophy
School
InstitutionsUniversity of Königsberg
Theses
Academic advisorsMartin Knutzen, Johann Gottfried Teske (M.A. advisor), Konrad Gottlieb Marquardt[10]
Notable studentsJakob Sigismund Beck, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder
Main interests
Notable ideas
Signature
Immanuel Kant signature.svg

Immanuel Kant (UK: t/,[16][17] US: t/;[18][19] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl ˈkant, -nu̯ɛl -];[20][21] 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was an influential Prussian German philosopher[22] in the Age of Enlightenment. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable.[23][24] In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features. He drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori ('beforehand'), and that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality.[25] Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of epistemology, ethics, political theory, and post-modern aesthetics.

In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason (1781),[26] he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume. Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists,[27] and is widely held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought.[28]

Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. He believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned.[29] The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Schopenhauer, who criticized the imperative form of Kantian ethics as "theological morals" and the "Mosaic Decalogue in disguise"[30] and Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood"[31] and was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith.[a]

Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (1797), the Critique of Judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology, and Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (1793).

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