"kant" redirects here. for other uses, see kant (disambiguation).
portrait by johann gottlieb becker, 1768
(1724-04-22)22 april 1724
königsberg, kingdom of prussia (present-day kaliningrad, russia)
12 february 1804(1804-02-12) (aged 79)
königsberg, kingdom of prussia
collegium fridericianum university of königsberg (b.a.; m.a., april 1755; phd, september 1755; phd, august 1770)
age of enlightenment
correspondence theory of truth
university of königsberg
principiorum primorum cognitionis metaphysicae nova dilucidatio (a new elucidation of the first principles of metaphysical cognition)(september 1755)
de mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis (dissertation on the form and principles of the sensible and the intelligible world)(august 1770)
martin knutzen, johann gottfried teske (m.a. advisor), konrad gottlieb marquardt
jakob sigismund beck, johann gottlieb fichte, johann gottfried herder
categorical and hypothetical imperative
copernican revolution in philosophy
kingdom of ends
mathematical vs. dynamical sublimity
noogony and noology
noumenon vs. thing-in-itself
primacy of practical reason
theoretical vs. practical philosophy
virtually all subsequent western philosophy, especially beck, beneke, bolzano, carnap, fichte, frege, guyer, habermas, hegel, heidegger, herder, jacobi, jaspers, maimon, peirce, popper, reinhold, schelling, schleiermacher, schlegel, schopenhauer, spir, zeller
part of immanuel kant
critique of pure reason
prolegomena to any future metaphysics
answering the question: what is enlightenment?
groundwork of the metaphysic of morals
critique of practical reason
critique of judgment
religion within the bounds of bare reason
perpetual peace: a philosophical sketch
the metaphysics of morals
a priori and a posteriori
"kingdom of ends"
j. g. fichte
f. h. jacobi
g. w. f. hegel
immanuel kant (uk: t/,us: t/; german: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl ˈkant, -nu̯ɛl -]; 22 april 1724 – 12 february 1804) was an influential prussiangermanphilosopher in the age of enlightenment. in his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable. in his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features. he drew a parallel to the copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori ('beforehand'), and that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of epistemology, ethics, political theory, and post-modern aesthetics.
in one of kant's major works, the critique of pure reason (1781), he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as david hume. kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists, and is widely held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought.
kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. the nature of kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for god, to more critical treatments epitomized by schopenhauer, who criticized the imperative form of kantian ethics as "theological morals" and the "mosaic decalogue in disguise" and nietzsche, who claimed that kant had "theologian blood" and was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional christian faith.[a]
kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. these include the universal natural history (1755), the critique of practical reason (1788), the metaphysics of morals (1797), the critique of judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology, and religion within the bounds of bare reason (1793).
In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume. Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists, and is widely held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought.
Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. He believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Schopenhauer, who criticized the imperative form of Kantian ethics as "theological morals" and the "Mosaic Decalogue in disguise" and Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith.[a]