IOS

iOS
IOS wordmark (2017).svg
214px×463px
iOS 13 running on an iPhone X
DeveloperApple Inc.
Written inC, C++, Objective-C, Swift
OS familyUnix-like, based on Darwin (BSD), iOS
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source
Initial releaseJune 29, 2007; 12 years ago (2007-06-29)
Latest release13.1.2[1] (17A860 | 17A861)[2] (September 30, 2019; 15 days ago (2019-09-30))
Latest preview13.2 Beta 2[3] (17B5068e)[4] (October 10, 2019; 5 days ago (2019-10-10))
Marketing targetSmartphones, tablet computers, portable media players
Available in40 languages[5][6][7][8]
Update methodiTunes (formerly) or OTA (iOS 5 or later)
Platforms
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
Default user interfaceCocoa Touch (multi-touch, GUI)
Licensewww.apple.com/ios/
Support status
Supported

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone, and iPod Touch; it also powered the iPad prior to the introduction of iPadOS in 2019. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android.

Originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, iOS has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch (September 2007) and the iPad (January 2010). As of March 2018, Apple's App Store contains more than 2.1 million iOS applications, 1 million of which are native for iPads.[9] These mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.

The iOS user interface is based upon direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching between portrait and landscape mode). Apple has been significantly praised for incorporating thorough accessibility functions into iOS, enabling users with vision and hearing disabilities to properly use its products.

Major versions of iOS are released annually. On all recent iOS devices, iOS regularly checks on the availability of an update, and if one is available, will prompt the user to permit its automatic installation. The current version, iOS 13 was released to the public on 19 September 2019, introducing user interface tweaks and a dark mode, along with features such as a redesigned Reminders app, a swipe keyboard, and an enhanced Photos app. iOS 13 does not support devices with less than 2 GB of RAM, including the iPhone 5s, iPod Touch (6th generation), and the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, which still make up over 10% of all iOS devices.[10] iOS 13 is exclusively for the iPhone and iPod touch as the iPad variant is now called iPadOS.

History

Original iOS logo, used until 2013 (left) and logo used 2013–17 (right)

In 2005, when Steve Jobs began planning the iPhone, he had a choice to either "shrink the Mac, which would be an epic feat of engineering, or enlarge the iPod". Jobs favored the former approach but pitted the Macintosh and iPod teams, led by Scott Forstall and Tony Fadell, respectively, against each other in an internal competition, with Forstall winning by creating the iPhone OS. The decision enabled the success of the iPhone as a platform for third-party developers: using a well-known desktop operating system as its basis allowed the many third-party Mac developers to write software for the iPhone with minimal retraining. Forstall was also responsible for creating a software development kit for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an App Store within iTunes.[11][12]

The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year.[13][14][15] At the time of its unveiling in January, Steve Jobs claimed: "iPhone runs OS X" and runs "desktop class applications",[16][17] but at the time of the iPhone's release, the operating system was renamed "iPhone OS".[18] Initially, third-party native applications were not supported. Jobs' reasoning was that developers could build web applications through the Safari web browser that "would behave like native apps on the iPhone".[19][20] In October 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it "in developers' hands in February".[21][22][23] On March 6, 2008, Apple held a press event, announcing the iPhone SDK.[24][25]

The iOS App Store was opened on July 10, 2008 with an initial 500 applications available.[26] This quickly grew to 3,000 in September 2008,[27] 15,000 in January 2009,[28] 50,000 in June 2009,[29] 100,000 in November 2009,[30][31] 250,000 in August 2010,[32][33] 650,000 in July 2012,[34] 1 million in October 2013,[35][36] 2 million in June 2016,[37][38][39] and 2.2 million in January 2017.[40][41] As of March 2016, 1 million apps are natively compatible with the iPad tablet computer.[42] These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.[37] App intelligence firm Sensor Tower has estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020.[43]

In September 2007, Apple announced the iPod Touch, a redesigned iPod based on the iPhone form factor.[44] In January 2010, Apple announced the iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading.[45]

In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as "iOS". The trademark "IOS" had been used by Cisco for over a decade for its operating system, IOS, used on its routers. To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the "IOS" trademark from Cisco.[46]

In October 2016, Apple opened its first iOS Developer Academy in Naples inside University of Naples Federico II's new campus.[47][48]

Software updates

Platform usage as measured by the App Store on August 6, 2019[49]

  iOS 12 (90%)
  iOS 11 (7%)
  Earlier (3%)

Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating system annually via iTunes and also, for iOS 5 and later, over-the-air.[50] The latest version is iOS 13, released on September 19, 2019. It is available for iPhone 6S and later, and the seventh-generation iPod Touch.[51] Alongside iOS 13, Apple debuted iPadOS 13 at its annual WWDC keynote on June 4, 2019.[52] It was released on September 24, 2019. iPadOS is available on iPad Air 2 and later, iPad fifth-generation and later, iPad mini 4 and later and all versions of the iPad Pro.[53]

Originally, iPod Touch users had to pay for system software updates. This was due to accounting rules making the device not a "subscription device" like iPhone or Apple TV, and significant enhancements to the device required payments.[54][55] The requirement to pay to upgrade caused iPod Touch owners to stay away from updates.[56] However, in September 2009, a change in accounting rules won tentative approval, significantly affecting both Apple's earnings and stock price, and allowing iPod Touch updates to be delivered for free.[57][58]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: IOS
Ænglisc: IOS
العربية: آي أو إس
asturianu: IOS
azərbaycanca: İOS
বাংলা: আইওএস
Bân-lâm-gú: IOS
български: IOS
bosanski: IOS
català: IOS
Cebuano: IOS
čeština: IOS
eesti: IOS
Ελληνικά: IOS
español: IOS
Esperanto: IOS
euskara: IOS
فارسی: آی‌اواس
français: IOS
Gaeilge: IOS
한국어: IOS
հայերեն: IOS
हिन्दी: आईओएस
hrvatski: IOS
Bahasa Indonesia: IOS
íslenska: IOS
italiano: IOS
עברית: IOS
ქართული: IOS
қазақша: IOS
kurdî: Apple iOS
Кыргызча: IOS
latviešu: IOS
lietuvių: IOS
magyar: IOS
मैथिली: आइओएस
македонски: IOS
മലയാളം: ഐ.ഒ.എസ്.
मराठी: आयओएस
مصرى: آى او اس
Bahasa Melayu: IOS
монгол: IOS
Nederlands: IOS (Apple)
नेपाली: आइओएस
нохчийн: IOS
norsk: IOS
norsk nynorsk: IOS
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଆଇଓଏସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: IOS
Pälzisch: Apple iOS
polski: IOS
português: IOS
română: IOS (Apple)
русский: IOS
Scots: IOS
shqip: IOS
Simple English: IOS
slovenčina: IOS
slovenščina: IOS
کوردی: ئای ئۆ ئێس
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: IOS (operativni sistem)
Sunda: IOS
suomi: IOS
svenska: IOS
Tagalog: IOS
தமிழ்: ஐஓஎஸ்
తెలుగు: ఐఓఎస్
тоҷикӣ: АйОс
Türkçe: İOS
українська: IOS
vèneto: IOS
Tiếng Việt: IOS
吴语: IOS
粵語: IOS
中文: IOS