Hypnosis

Hypnotic Séance (1887) by Richard Bergh
Photographic Studies in Hypnosis, Abnormal Psychology (1938)

Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may also refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis.[1]

There are competing theories explaining hypnosis and related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness.[2][3] In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect[4][5], a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist[6] or form of imaginative role enactment.[7][8][9]

During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened focus and concentration.[10] Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions.[11]Hypnosis usually begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion. The use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is often performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.

The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may actually aid the formation of false-memories.[12][13]

Etymology

The term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", and the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" (stem of aorist hypnōs-) and the suffix -is.[14][15] The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism" (nervous sleep), all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820. These words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid (to whom they are sometimes wrongly attributed) around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers (which was called "Mesmerism" or "animal magnetism"), but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hipnose
Ænglisc: Oferswefn
العربية: تنويم إيحائي
asturianu: Hipnosis
azərbaycanca: Hipnoz
বাংলা: সম্মোহন
беларуская: Гіпноз
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гіпноз
български: Хипноза
bosanski: Hipnoza
català: Hipnosi
čeština: Hypnóza
Cymraeg: Hypnosis
dansk: Hypnose
Deutsch: Hypnose
eesti: Hüpnoos
español: Hipnosis
Esperanto: Hipnoto
euskara: Hipnosi
فارسی: هیپنوتیزم
français: Hypnose
Frysk: Hypnoaze
Gaeilge: Hiopnóis
galego: Hipnose
한국어: 최면
հայերեն: Հիպնոս
Արեւմտահայերէն: Արհեստաքուն
हिन्दी: सम्मोहन
hrvatski: Hipnoza
Bahasa Indonesia: Hipnosis
italiano: Ipnosi
עברית: היפנוזה
ქართული: ჰიპნოზი
қазақша: Гипноз
Кыргызча: Гипноз
Latina: Hypnosis
latviešu: Hipnoze
lietuvių: Hipnozė
magyar: Hipnózis
македонски: Хипноза
مصرى: ايحاء
Bahasa Melayu: Hipnosis
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စိတ်ညှို့ပညာ
Nederlands: Hypnose
日本語: 催眠
norsk: Hypnose
norsk nynorsk: Hypnose
occitan: Ipnòsi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gipnoz
polski: Hipnoza
português: Hipnose
română: Hipnoză
русский: Гипноз
Scots: Hypnosis
shqip: Hipnoza
සිංහල: මෝහනය
Simple English: Hypnosis
slovenčina: Hypnóza
slovenščina: Hipnoza
српски / srpski: Хипноза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hipnoza
suomi: Hypnoosi
svenska: Hypnos
Tagalog: Hipnosis
తెలుగు: హిప్నాటిజం
Türkçe: Hipnoz
українська: Гіпноз
Tiếng Việt: Thôi miên
ייִדיש: היפנאזיע
中文: 催眠