Hungary

Hungary

Magyarország  (Hungarian)
Anthem: "Himnusz" (Hungarian)[1]
(English: "Hymn")
Location of Hungary (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Hungary (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Budapest
47°26′N 19°15′E / 47°26′N 19°15′E / 47.433; 19.250
Official languagesHungarian[2]
Ethnic groups
(microcensus 2016)
Religion
(census 2011)[4]
Demonym(s)Hungarian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
János Áder
Viktor Orbán
László Kövér
LegislatureOrszággyűlés
Foundation
895[5]
25 December 1000[6]
24 April 1222
29 August 1526
• Liberation of Buda
2 September 1686
15 March 1848
30 March 1867
4 June 1920
23 October 1989
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
93,030[7] km2 (35,920 sq mi) (108th)
• Water (%)
0.74%
Population
• 2017 estimate
9,797,561[8] (92nd)
• Density
105.3/km2 (272.7/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$325.134 billion[9] (56th)
• Per capita
$33,408[9] (44th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$164.527 billion[9] (55th)
• Per capita
$16,905[9] (55th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 28.7[10]
low · 16th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.838[11]
very high · 45th
CurrencyForint (HUF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatyyyy.mm.dd.
Driving sideright
Calling code+36
ISO 3166 codeHU
Internet TLD.hu

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ] (About this soundlisten)) is a country in Central Europe.[2] Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.[12] With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union.[13] The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe.[14] Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.

The territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin.[15][16] His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.[17] Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699). It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, and later joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power.[18]

The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians.[19][20][21] Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties.[22][23] Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades (1949[24]–1989[25]).[26] The country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.[27][28] On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.[29]

Hungary is an OECD high-income economy[30][31] and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, and tuition-free secondary education.[32][33] Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology.[34][35][36][37] It is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017,[38] owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.[39][40] Hungary's cultural, historical, and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs.[41][42]

Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007.[43] It is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, and the Visegrád Group.[44]

Etymology

The "H" in the name of Hungary (and Latin Hungaria) is most likely due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi (Οὔγγροι). The Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur ('ten [tribes of the] Ogurs'). Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars.[45][46]

The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar ('Hungarian') and ország ('country'). As a matter of fact, the name "Magyar", which refers to the people of the country, more accurately reflects the name of the country in some other languages such as Turkish, Persian and other languages as Magyaristan or Land of Magyars or similar. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri.[47][48][49] The first element magy is likely from Proto-Ugric *mäńć- 'man, person', also found in the name of the Mansi people (mäńćī, mańśi, måńś). The second element eri, 'man, men, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj 'husband', and is cognate with Mari erge 'son', Finnish archaic yrkä 'young man'.[50]

Official names[51]
Date Name Notes
895–1000 Principality of Hungary Middle Ages
1000–1301 Kingdom of Hungary Middle Ages
1301–1526 Kingdom of Hungary Middle Ages
1526–1867 Kingdom of Hungary Crownland of Habsburg Monarchy and Austrian Empire
1867–1918 Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen Part of Austria-Hungary
1918–1919 Hungarian People's Republic First Republic
1919–1920 Hungarian Soviet Republic
1919–1920 Hungarian Republic
1920–1946 Kingdom of Hungary Puppet State of Nazi Germany from 1944 to 1945.
1946–1949 Hungarian Republic Second Republic.
1949–1989 Hungarian People's Republic Satellite state of the Soviet Union
1989–2012 Hungarian Republic Third Republic, constitution of 1949 amended.
2012–present Hungary
Other Languages
Acèh: Hongaria
Адыгэбзэ: Мэжарей
адыгабзэ: Хунгарие
Afrikaans: Hongarye
Alemannisch: Ungarn
አማርኛ: ሀንጋሪ
Ænglisc: Ungerland
العربية: المجر
aragonés: Hongría
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܓܪ
armãneashti: Ungaria
arpetan: Hongrie
asturianu: Hungría
Avañe'ẽ: Hungyria
авар: Мажар
Aymar aru: Hunkariya
azərbaycanca: Macarıstan
تۆرکجه: ماجاریستان
বাংলা: হাঙ্গেরি
Bân-lâm-gú: Hông-gâ-lī
башҡортса: Венгрия
беларуская: Венгрыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вугоршчына
भोजपुरी: हंगरी
Bikol Central: Hungriya
Bislama: Hungary
български: Унгария
Boarisch: Ungarn
བོད་ཡིག: ཧུང་གྷ་རི།
bosanski: Mađarska
brezhoneg: Hungaria
буряад: Унгар
català: Hongria
Чӑвашла: Хункăри
Cebuano: Unggriya
čeština: Maďarsko
Chamoru: Hunggria
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Hungría
chiShona: Hungary
chiTumbuka: Hungary
corsu: Ungheria
Cymraeg: Hwngari
dansk: Ungarn
davvisámegiella: Ungára
Deitsch: Ungarn
Deutsch: Ungarn
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހަންގޭރީ
dolnoserbski: Hungorska
डोटेली: हंगेरी
eesti: Ungari
Ελληνικά: Ουγγαρία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ungherî
español: Hungría
Esperanto: Hungario
estremeñu: Ungria
euskara: Hungaria
eʋegbe: Hungary
فارسی: مجارستان
Fiji Hindi: Hungary
føroyskt: Ungarn
français: Hongrie
Frysk: Hongarije
Fulfulde: Hunngariya
furlan: Ongjarie
Gaeilge: An Ungáir
Gaelg: Yn Ungaar
Gagauz: Ungariya
Gàidhlig: An Ungair
galego: Hungría
ГӀалгӀай: Маджарче
Gĩkũyũ: Hangarĩ
ગુજરાતી: હંગેરી
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: हंगेरी
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hiûng-ngà-li
한국어: 헝가리
Hausa: Hungariya
Hawaiʻi: Hunakalia
հայերեն: Հունգարիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Հունգարիա
हिन्दी: हंगरी
hornjoserbsce: Madźarska
hrvatski: Mađarska
Igbo: Hungary
Ilokano: Hungaria
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: হাঙ্গেরী
Bahasa Indonesia: Hongaria
interlingua: Hungaria
Interlingue: Hungaria
Ирон: Венгри
íslenska: Ungverjaland
italiano: Ungheria
עברית: הונגריה
Jawa: Honggari
Kabɩyɛ: Hɔŋirii
kalaallisut: Ungarni
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಹಂಗರಿ
Kapampangan: Hungrya
къарачай-малкъар: Маджар
ქართული: უნგრეთი
kaszëbsczi: Madżarskô
қазақша: Мажарстан
kernowek: Hungari
Kinyarwanda: Hongiriya
Kiswahili: Hungaria
Kongo: Hongrie
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ongri
kurdî: Macaristan
Кыргызча: Мадярстан
кырык мары: Венгри
Ladino: Madjaristan
لۊری شومالی: مجارستان
latgaļu: Vengreja
Latina: Hungaria
latviešu: Ungārija
Lëtzebuergesch: Ungarn
лезги: Венгрия
lietuvių: Vengrija
Ligure: Ungherîa
Limburgs: Hongarieë
lingála: Ungri
Lingua Franca Nova: Magiar
Livvinkarjala: Vengrii
la .lojban.: madjiar
lumbaart: Üngheria
македонски: Унгарија
Malagasy: Hongaria
മലയാളം: ഹംഗറി
Malti: Ungerija
Māori: Hanekeria
मराठी: हंगेरी
მარგალური: უნგრეთი
مصرى: المجر
مازِرونی: مجارستون
Bahasa Melayu: Hungary
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hṳ̆ng-ngà-lé
монгол: Унгар
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟန်ဂေရီနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Ungari
Nederlands: Hongarije
Nedersaksies: Hongaarnlaand
नेपाली: हंगेरी
नेपाल भाषा: हङ्गेरी
日本語: ハンガリー
Napulitano: Ungaria
нохчийн: Мажарчоь
Nordfriisk: Ungarn
Norfuk / Pitkern: Hungrii
norsk: Ungarn
norsk nynorsk: Ungarn
Nouormand: Hongrie
Novial: Hungaria
occitan: Ongria
олык марий: Венгрий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହଙ୍ଗେରୀ
Oromoo: Hangaarii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mojariston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹੰਗਰੀ
पालि: हंगरी
Pangasinan: Hungary
پنجابی: ھنگری
Papiamentu: Hongaria
پښتو: هنګری
Patois: Onggari
Перем Коми: Мадьярму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រទេសហុងគ្រី
Picard: Hongrie
Piemontèis: Ungherìa
Tok Pisin: Hangari
Plattdüütsch: Ungarn
polski: Węgry
Ποντιακά: Ουγγαρία
português: Hungria
Qaraqalpaqsha: Vengriya
qırımtatarca: Macaristan
română: Ungaria
romani čhib: Ungariya
rumantsch: Ungaria
Runa Simi: Unriya
русиньскый: Мадярьско
русский: Венгрия
саха тыла: Венгрия
Gagana Samoa: Hanikeri
संस्कृतम्: हंगरी
sardu: Ungheria
Scots: Hungary
Seeltersk: Ungarn
Sesotho: Hungary
shqip: Hungaria
sicilianu: Unghirìa
Simple English: Hungary
SiSwati: IHangareyi
slovenčina: Maďarsko
slovenščina: Madžarska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Ѫгри
ślůnski: Madźary
Soomaaliga: Hungary
کوردی: مەجارستان
Sranantongo: Ogarnikondre
српски / srpski: Мађарска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mađarska
Basa Sunda: Hungaria
suomi: Unkari
svenska: Ungern
Tagalog: Hungary
தமிழ்: அங்கேரி
tarandíne: Ungherie
татарча/tatarça: Маҗарстан
తెలుగు: హంగేరి
tetun: Ungria
тоҷикӣ: Маҷористон
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎲᏂᎦᎵ
Türkçe: Macaristan
Türkmençe: Wengriýa
Twi: Hungary
удмурт: Венгрия
українська: Угорщина
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ۋېنگرىيە
Vahcuengh: Yunghyazleih
vèneto: Ongarìa
vepsän kel’: Mad'jaranma
Tiếng Việt: Hungary
Volapük: Macarän
Võro: Ungari
walon: Hongreye
文言: 匈牙利
West-Vlams: Hongareye
Winaray: Hungarya
Wolof: Ongiri
吴语: 匈牙利
Xitsonga: Hungary
ייִדיש: אונגארן
Yorùbá: Húngárì
粵語: 匈牙利
Zazaki: Macarıstan
Zeêuws: Honharije
žemaitėška: Vingrėjė
中文: 匈牙利