Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis

Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
Episode of the French intervention in Spain 1823.PNG
Episode of the French intervention in Spain 1823 by Hippolyte Lecomte
Date1823
LocationSpain
ResultFrench and Spanish Royalist victory
Belligerents
Bourbon Restoration Kingdom of France
Spain Armée de la Foi
Spain Partisans of the Cortes
Commanders and leaders
Duke of Angoulême
Armand Guilleminot
Nicolas Oudinot
Gabriel Molitor
Bon de Moncey
Étienne Tardif de Pommeroux de Bordesoulle
Louis Aloy de Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein
Rafael del Riego
Pablo Morillo
Francisco Ballesteros
Francisco Espoz y Mina
Miguel de Álava
Count of La Bisbal
Quiroga
Garcés
Casualties and losses
France: 400 killed[1]600 killed[1]

The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France, Louis XVIII to help the Spanish Royalists restore King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium. Despite the name, the actual number of troops was around 60,000.[2] The force comprised some five army corps (the bulk of the French regular army) and was led by the Duke of Angoulême, the son of the future King Charles X of France.

Context

In 1822, Ferdinand VII applied the terms of the Congress of Vienna, lobbied for the assistance of the other absolute monarchs of Europe, in the process joining the Holy Alliance formed by Russia, Prussia, Austria and France to restore absolutism. In France, the ultra-royalists pressured Louis XVIII to intervene. To temper their counter-revolutionary ardor, the Duc de Richelieu deployed troops along the Pyrenees Mountains along the France-Spain border, charging them with halting the spread of Spanish liberalism and the "yellow fever" from encroaching into France. In September 1822 this "cordon sanitaire" became an observation corps and then very quickly transformed itself into a military expedition.