Humphrey Bogart

Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart 1945.JPG
Bogart in a publicity photo, 1945
BornHumphrey DeForest Bogart
(1899-12-25)December 25, 1899
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedJanuary 14, 1957(1957-01-14) (aged 57)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting placeForest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale)
EducationTrinity School
Phillips Academy
OccupationActor
Years active1921–1956
Spouse(s)
Helen Menken
(m. 1926; div. 1927)

Mary Philips
(m. 1928; div. 1937)

Mayo Methot
(m. 1938; div. 1945)

Lauren Bacall (m. 1945)
Children2
Parent(s)Belmont DeForest Bogart
Maud Humphrey
AwardsAcademy Award for Best Actor (1951)
WebsiteOfficial website
Signature
Humphrey Bogart signature.svg

Humphrey DeForest Bogart (t/;[1] December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957)[2][3] was an American film and stage actor. His performances in numerous films from the Classical Hollywood era made him a cultural icon.[4][5][6] In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him as the greatest male star of American cinema.

Bogart began acting in Broadway shows after World War I.[7] After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, he began working in films, mostly playing gangsters. He was highly praised for his work in The Petrified Forest (1936). Bogart had originated the role of Duke Mantee in the 1935 Broadway production, but Warner Bros. wanted to cast the then much better known Edward G. Robinson for the film adaptation; however Leslie Howard, who played the protagonist in both the play and the film, insisted on Bogart being given the part. His breakthrough came in 1941 when his performances in High Sierra and The Maltese Falcon made him a star. His first true romantic lead role came in 1942's Casablanca, breaking his typecasting as a gangster. He and Lauren Bacall starred together in To Have and Have Not (1944). After they married, she also played his love interest in The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947) and Key Largo (1948). His notable films included The African Queen, The Caine Mutiny, Sabrina and The Barefoot Contessa. Bogart won the Academy Award for Best Actor for The African Queen, and was nominated for Casablanca and The Caine Mutiny.

Early life and education

Birthplace plaque

Bogart was born on Christmas Day 1899 in New York City, the eldest child of Belmont DeForest Bogart (1867–1934) and Maud Humphrey (1868–1940). Belmont was the only child of the unhappy marriage of Adam Watkins Bogart, a Canandaigua, New York innkeeper, and his wife, Julia, a wealthy heiress.[8] The name "Bogart" derives from the Dutch surname "Bogaert".[9] Belmont and Maud married in June 1898; he was a Presbyterian, of English and Dutch descent, and she was an Episcopalian of English heritage, and a descendant of Mayflower passenger John Howland. Young Humphrey was raised in the Episcopal faith, but was non-practicing for most of his adult life.[10]

The precise date of Bogart's birth was long a matter of dispute, but has been cleared up. Warner Bros. listed his birthdate, throughout his career, but Clifford McCarty maintained that the studio publicity department had altered it from January 23, 1900 "...to foster the view that a man born on Christmas Day couldn't really be as villainous as he appeared to be on screen".[11] The "corrected" January birthdate subsequently appeared—and in some cases, remains—in many otherwise authoritative sources.[12][13] Biographers A.M. Sperber and Eric Lax documented, however, that Bogart always celebrated his birthday on December 25, and consistently listed it as such on official records, such as his marriage license.[14]

Maud Humphrey from American Women, 1897

Lauren Bacall confirmed in her autobiography that his birthday was always celebrated on Christmas Day, adding that he joked that he was cheated out of a present every year because of it.[15] Sperber and Lax also noted that a birth announcement, printed in the Ontario County Times on January 10, 1900, effectively rules out the possibility of a January 23 birthdate;[16] and state and federal census records from 1900 report a Christmas 1899 birthdate as well.[17]

Bogart's father, Belmont, was a cardiopulmonary surgeon. His mother, Maud, was a commercial illustrator who received her art training in New York and France, including study with James Abbott McNeill Whistler. Later, she became art director of the fashion magazine The Delineator and a militant suffragette.[18] She used a drawing of baby Humphrey in a well-known advertising campaign for Mellins Baby Food.[19] In her prime, she made over $50,000 a year, then a vast sum and far more than her husband's $20,000.[20] The Bogarts lived in a fashionable Upper West Side apartment, and had an elegant cottage on a 55-acre estate on Canandaigua Lake in upstate New York. As a youngster, Humphrey's gang of friends at the lake would put on theatricals.[21]

Bogart had two younger sisters, Frances ("Pat") and Catherine Elizabeth ("Kay").[19] His parents were busy in their careers and frequently fought. Very formal, they showed little emotion towards their children. Maud told her offspring to call her "Maud" not "Mother", and showed little if any physical affection for them. When pleased she "[c]lapped you on the shoulder, almost the way a man does", Bogart recalled.[22] "I was brought up very unsentimentally but very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our mother and father didn't glug over my two sisters and me."[23]

As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, tidiness, the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy clothes she dressed him in, and even for the name "Humphrey".[24] From his father, Bogart inherited a tendency to needle, fondness for fishing, lifelong love of boating, and an attraction to strong-willed women.[25]

Bogart attended the private Delancey School until fifth grade, then the prestigious Trinity School.[26] He was an indifferent, sullen student who showed no interest in after-school activities.[25] Later he went to the equally elite boarding school Phillips Academy, where he was admitted based on family connections.[27] His parents hoped he would go on to Yale, but in 1918 Bogart was expelled.[28] Several reasons have been given: one claims that it was for throwing the headmaster (or a groundskeeper) into Rabbit Pond on campus. Another cites smoking, drinking, poor academic performance, and possibly some inappropriate comments made to the staff. A third has him withdrawn by his father for failing to improve his grades. Whatever caused his premature departure, his parents were deeply dismayed and rued their failed plans for his future.[29]

Navy

With no viable career options, Bogart followed his passion for the sea and enlisted in the United States Navy in the spring of 1918. He recalled later, "At eighteen, war was great stuff. Paris! Sexy French girls! Hot damn!"[30] Bogart is recorded as a model sailor who spent most of his sea time after the Armistice ferrying troops back from Europe.[31]

As an actor, Bogart's only major part as a US Navy man came late in his career as the paranoid Capt. Queeg in The Caine Mutiny in 1954.

Bogart may have received his trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp during his naval stint, though there are several conflicting stories. By one account, his lip was cut by shrapnel when his ship, the USS Leviathan, was shelled, although some claim Bogart did not make it to sea until after the Armistice had been signed. Another version, which Bogart's longtime friend, author Nathaniel Benchley, believed, is that Bogart was injured while taking a prisoner to Portsmouth Naval Prison in Kittery, Maine. While changing trains in Boston, the handcuffed prisoner allegedly asked Bogart for a cigarette, then while Bogart looked for a match, the prisoner smashed him across the mouth with the cuffs, cutting Bogart's lip and fleeing. Recaptured, the prisoner was taken to jail. An alternative version has Bogart struck in the mouth by a handcuff loosened while freeing his charge, the other still around the prisoner's wrist.[32] By the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, a scar had already formed. David Niven said that when he first asked Bogart about his scar, he said it was caused by a childhood accident. "Goddamn doctor", Bogart later told Niven, "instead of stitching it up, he screwed it up." Niven claims the stories that Bogart got the scar during wartime were made up by the studios to inject glamour. His post-service physical makes no mention of the lip scar, even though it mentions many smaller scars.[31] When actress Louise Brooks met Bogart in 1924, he had some scar tissue on his upper lip, which Brooks said that Bogart may have had partially repaired before entering films in 1930.[29] She also said his "lip wound gave him no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended."

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Humphrey Bogart
العربية: همفري بوغارت
aragonés: Humphrey Bogart
asturianu: Humphrey Bogart
Aymar aru: Humphrey Bogart
azərbaycanca: Hamfri Boqart
Bân-lâm-gú: Humphrey Bogart
башҡортса: Хамфри Богарт
беларуская: Хамфры Богарт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гамфры Богарт
български: Хъмфри Богарт
bosanski: Humphrey Bogart
brezhoneg: Humphrey Bogart
čeština: Humphrey Bogart
español: Humphrey Bogart
Esperanto: Humphrey Bogart
français: Humphrey Bogart
Gàidhlig: Humphrey Bogart
hrvatski: Humphrey Bogart
Bahasa Indonesia: Humphrey Bogart
íslenska: Humphrey Bogart
italiano: Humphrey Bogart
kernowek: Humphrey Bogart
Kiswahili: Humphrey Bogart
latviešu: Hamfrijs Bogarts
Lëtzebuergesch: Humphrey Bogart
lietuvių: Humphrey Bogart
македонски: Хамфри Богарт
Malagasy: Humphrey Bogart
მარგალური: ჰამფრი ბოგარტი
Bahasa Melayu: Humphrey Bogart
Nederlands: Humphrey Bogart
Piemontèis: Humphrey Bogart
Plattdüütsch: Humphrey Bogart
português: Humphrey Bogart
română: Humphrey Bogart
Runa Simi: Humphrey Bogart
Simple English: Humphrey Bogart
slovenčina: Humphrey Bogart
slovenščina: Humphrey Bogart
српски / srpski: Хамфри Богарт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Humphrey Bogart
Türkçe: Humphrey Bogart
українська: Гамфрі Богарт
Tiếng Việt: Humphrey Bogart
Volapük: Humphrey Bogart
Yorùbá: Humphrey Bogart