Huguenots

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Huguenots (/; French: Les huguenots [yɡ(ə)no]) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants.

The term has its origin in early 16th century France. It was frequently used in reference to those of the Reformed Church of France from the time of the Protestant Reformation. Huguenots were French Protestants who held to the Reformed tradition of Protestantism. The Protestant populations of Alsace, Moselle, and Montbéliard were mainly ethnic German Lutherans.

In his Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Hans Hillerbrand said that, on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, the Huguenot community included as much as 10% of the French population. By 1600 it had declined to 7–8%, and was reduced further after the return of severe persecution in 1685 under Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau.

The Huguenots were believed to be concentrated among the population in the southern and western parts of the Kingdom of France. As Huguenots gained influence and more openly displayed their faith, Catholic hostility grew. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598. The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d'Albret, her son, the future Henry IV (who would later convert to Catholicism in order to become king), and the princes of Condé. The wars ended with the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious, political and military autonomy.

Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s resulted in the abolition of their political and military privileges. They retained the religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes until the rule of Louis XIV, who gradually increased persecution of Protestantism until he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau (1685). This ended legal recognition of Protestantism in France and the Huguenots were forced either to convert to Catholicism or flee as refugees; they were subject to violent dragonnades. Louis XIV claimed that the French Huguenot population was reduced from about 800,000 to 900,000 adherents to just 1,000 to 1,500. He exaggerated the decline, but the dragonnades were devastating for the French Protestant community.

The remaining Huguenots faced continued persecution under Louis XV. By the time of Louis XV's death in 1774, Calvinism had been nearly eliminated from France. Persecution of Protestants officially ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787. Two years later, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Protestants gained equal rights as citizens.[1]

Emigration and diaspora

The bulk of Huguenot émigrés relocated to Protestant states, such as the Dutch Republic, England and Wales, Protestant-controlled Ireland, the Channel Islands, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, the Electorate of Brandenburg and Electorate of the Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Duchy of Prussia. Some fled as refugees to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa, the Dutch East Indies, the Caribbean colonies, and several of the Dutch and English colonies in North America.[2] A few families went to Orthodox Russia and Catholic Quebec.

After centuries, most Huguenots have assimilated into the various societies and cultures where they settled. Remnant communities of Camisards in the Cévennes, most Reformed members of the United Protestant Church of France, French members of the largely German Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, and the Huguenot diaspora in England and Australia, all still retain their beliefs and Huguenot designation.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hugenoot
Alemannisch: Hugenotten
العربية: هوغونوتيون
asturianu: Hugonotes
azərbaycanca: Hugenotlar
беларуская: Гугеноты
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гугеноты
български: Хугеноти
Boarisch: Hugenotten
català: Hugonot
čeština: Hugenoti
Cymraeg: Hiwgenotiaid
dansk: Huguenot
Deutsch: Hugenotten
eesti: Hugenotid
Ελληνικά: Ουγενότοι
español: Hugonotes
Esperanto: Hugenotoj
euskara: Higanot
فارسی: اوگنو
français: Huguenot
Frysk: Hugenoaten
Gaeilge: Úgóineach
galego: Hugonotes
한국어: 위그노
հայերեն: Հուգենոտներ
हिन्दी: ह्यूगेनोट
hrvatski: Hugenoti
Bahasa Indonesia: Huguenot
íslenska: Húgenottar
italiano: Ugonotti
עברית: הוגנוטים
ქართული: ჰუგენოტები
Latina: Hugenoti
latviešu: Hugenoti
Lëtzebuergesch: Hugenotten
lietuvių: Hugenotai
magyar: Hugenották
Bahasa Melayu: Huguenot
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟျူးဂျနိုး
Nederlands: Hugenoten
日本語: ユグノー
norsk: Hugenotter
norsk nynorsk: Hugenottar
occitan: Uganaud
پنجابی: ہیوجیناٹ
Picard: Uguénots
Plattdüütsch: Hugenotten
polski: Hugenoci
português: Huguenote
română: Hughenoți
русский: Гугеноты
саха тыла: Гугеноттар
Scots: Huguenot
Simple English: Huguenot
slovenčina: Hugenoti
slovenščina: Hugenoti
српски / srpski: Хугеноти
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hugenoti
suomi: Hugenotit
svenska: Hugenotter
Tagalog: Huguenot
українська: Гугеноти
Tiếng Việt: Huguenot
中文: 胡格諾派