Hugo Chávez

Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chavez.jpg
45th President of Venezuela
In office
14 April 2002 – 5 March 2013
Vice Presidents
Preceded byDiosdado Cabello (Acting)
Succeeded byNicolás Maduro
In office
2 February 1999 – 12 April 2002
Vice Presidents
Preceded byRafael Caldera
Succeeded byPedro Carmona (Acting)
President of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela
In office
24 March 2007 – 5 March 2013
DeputyDiosdado Cabello
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byNicolás Maduro
Personal details
BornHugo Rafael Chávez Frías
(1954-07-28)28 July 1954
Sabaneta, Venezuela
Died5 March 2013(2013-03-05) (aged 58)
Caracas, Venezuela
Resting place
  • Cuartel de la Montaña
  • Caracas, Venezuela
Political partyUnited Socialist Party (2007–2013)
Other political
  • Rosa Virginia
  • María Gabriela
  • Hugo Rafael
  • Rosinés
Alma materMilitary Academy of Venezuela
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Military service
Allegiance Venezuela
Service/branchVenezuelan Army
Years of service1971–1992
RankLieutenant colonel

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈuɣo rafaˈel ˈt͡ʃaβes ˈfɾ]; 28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013. Chávez was also leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), which he led until 2012.

Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas, Chávez became a career military officer, and after becoming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system based on the Puntofijo Pact,[1] he founded the clandestine Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 (MBR-200) in the early 1980s. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an unsuccessful coup d'état against the Democratic Action government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1992, for which he was imprisoned. Released from prison after two years, he founded a political party known as the Fifth Republic Movement and was elected President of Venezuela in 1998. He was re-elected in 2000 and again in 2006 with over 60% of the votes. After winning his fourth term as president in the October 2012 presidential election,[2] he was to be sworn in on 10 January 2013, but Venezuela's National Assembly postponed the inauguration to allow him time to recover from medical treatment in Cuba.[3] Suffering a return of the cancer originally diagnosed in June 2011, Chávez died in Caracas on 5 March 2013 at the age of 58.[4][5]

Following the adoption of a new constitution in 1999, Chávez focused on enacting social reforms as part of the Bolivarian Revolution. Using record-high oil revenues of the 2000s, his government nationalized key industries, created participatory democratic Communal Councils and implemented social programs known as the Bolivarian missions to expand access to food, housing, healthcare and education.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Venezuela received high oil profits in the mid-2000s,[15] resulting in temporary improvements in areas such as poverty, literacy, income equality and quality of life occurring primarily between 2003 and 2007,[7][15][16] though these gains started to reverse after 2012 and it has been argued that government policies did not address structural inequalities.[17] Overall, Chávez's populist policies eventually led to a severe socioeconomic crisis in Venezuela.[18]

On 2 June 2010, Chávez declared an "economic war" due to shortages in Venezuela, beginning the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela.[19] By the end of Chávez's presidency in the early 2010s, economic actions performed by his government during the preceding decade such as deficit spending[20][21][22][23][24] and price controls[25][26][27][28][29] proved to be unsustainable, with Venezuela's economy faltering while poverty,[7][15][30] inflation[31] and shortages in Venezuela increased. Chávez's presidency also saw significant increases in the country's murder rate[32][33][34][35] and continued corruption within the police force and government.[36][37] His use of enabling acts[38][39] and his government's use of Bolivarian propaganda was also controversial.[40][41][42][43]

Internationally, Chávez aligned himself with the Marxist–Leninist governments of Fidel and then Raúl Castro in Cuba, as well as the socialist governments of Evo Morales (Bolivia), Rafael Correa (Ecuador) and Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua). His presidency was seen as a part of the socialist "pink tide" sweeping Latin America. Chávez described his policies as anti-imperialist, being a prominent adversary of the United States's foreign policy as well as a vocal critic of U.S.-supported neoliberalism and laissez-faire capitalism.[44] He described himself as a Marxist.[45][46][47][48][49] He supported Latin American and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in setting up the pan-regional Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Bank of the South and the regional television network TeleSUR. Chavez's ideas, programs, and style form the basis of "Chavismo", a political ideology closely associated with Bolivarianism and socialism of the 21st century.

Early life

He was born on 28 July 1954 in his paternal grandmother Rosa Inéz Chávez's home, a modest three-room house located in the rural village Sabaneta, Barinas State. The Chávez family were of Amerindian, Afro-Venezuelan, and Spanish descent.[50] His parents, Hugo de los Reyes Chávez, described as a proud COPEI member,[51] and Elena Frías de Chávez, were schoolteachers who lived in the small village of Los Rastrojos.[51]

Hugo was born the second of seven children.[52][53] Hugo described his childhood as "poor... [but] very happy",[54] though his childhood of supposed poverty has been disputed as Chávez possibly changed the story of his background for political reasons.[51] Attending the Julián Pino Elementary School, Chávez was particularly interested in the 19th-century federalist general Ezequiel Zamora, in whose army his own great-great-grandfather had served.[55][56] With no high school in their area, Hugo's parents sent Hugo and his older brother Adán to live with their grandmother Rosa, who lived in a lower middle class subsidized home provided by the government, where they attended Daniel O'Leary High School in the mid-1960s.[57][58][59] Hugo later described his grandmother as being "a pure human being... pure love, pure kindness".[60] She was a devout Roman Catholic, and Hugo was an altar boy at a local church.[61] His father, despite having the salary of a teacher, helped pay for college for Chávez and his siblings.[51]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hugo Chávez
Alemannisch: Hugo Chávez
አማርኛ: ሁጎ ቻቬዝ
Ænglisc: Hugo Chávez
العربية: هوغو تشافيز
aragonés: Hugo Chávez
asturianu: Hugo Chávez
Aymar aru: Hugo Chávez
azərbaycanca: Uqo Çaves
Bân-lâm-gú: Hugo Chávez
башҡортса: Уго Чавес
беларуская: Уга Чавес
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Уга Чавэс
Bikol Central: Hugo Chávez
български: Уго Чавес
bosanski: Hugo Chávez
brezhoneg: Hugo Chávez
català: Hugo Chávez
čeština: Hugo Chávez
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Hugo Chavez
Cymraeg: Hugo Chávez
Deutsch: Hugo Chávez
Ελληνικά: Ούγκο Τσάβες
español: Hugo Chávez
Esperanto: Hugo Chávez
estremeñu: Hugo Chávez
euskara: Hugo Chávez
فارسی: هوگو چاوز
français: Hugo Chávez
Gaeilge: Hugo Chávez
Gàidhlig: Hugo Chávez
galego: Hugo Chávez
한국어: 우고 차베스
Հայերեն: Ուգո Չավես
hornjoserbsce: Hugo Chávez
hrvatski: Hugo Chávez
Bahasa Indonesia: Hugo Chávez
íslenska: Hugo Chávez
italiano: Hugo Chávez
Basa Jawa: Hugo Chávez
Kapampangan: Hugo Chávez
ქართული: უგო ჩავესი
қазақша: Уго Чавес
Ladino: Hugo Chávez
Latina: Hugo Chávez
latviešu: Ugo Čavess
Lëtzebuergesch: Hugo Chávez
lietuvių: Hugo Chávez
lingála: Hugo Chávez
lumbaart: Hugo Chavez
magyar: Hugo Chávez
македонски: Уго Чавез
Malagasy: Hugo Chávez
മലയാളം: ഊഗോ ചാവെസ്
მარგალური: უგო ჩავესი
مازِرونی: هوگو چاوز
Bahasa Melayu: Hugo Chávez
Baso Minangkabau: Hugo Chávez
Nederlands: Hugo Chávez
norsk nynorsk: Hugo Chávez
occitan: Hugo Chávez
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hugo Chávez
پنجابی: ہیوگو شاویز
Papiamentu: Hugo Chávez
Plattdüütsch: Hugo Chávez
polski: Hugo Chávez
português: Hugo Chávez
română: Hugo Chávez
русский: Чавес, Уго
sicilianu: Hugo Chávez
Simple English: Hugo Chávez
slovenčina: Hugo Chávez
slovenščina: Hugo Chávez
ślůnski: Hugo Chávez
Soomaaliga: Hugo Chavez
Sranantongo: Hugo Chávez
српски / srpski: Уго Чавез
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hugo Chávez
svenska: Hugo Chávez
Tagalog: Hugo Chávez
татарча/tatarça: Уго Чавес
тоҷикӣ: Ҳюго Чавез
Türkçe: Hugo Chávez
Türkmençe: Ugo Çawez
удмурт: Чавес, Уго
українська: Уго Чавес
vèneto: Hugo Chávez
vepsän kel’: Čaves Ugo
Tiếng Việt: Hugo Chávez
Winaray: Hugo Chávez
Yorùbá: Hugo Chávez
粵語: 查韋斯
Zazaki: Hugo Chávez
žemaitėška: Hugo Chávez
Lingua Franca Nova: Hugo Chavez