Hubert Humphrey

Hubert Humphrey
38 H Humphrey 3x4 (cropped).jpg
38th Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969
PresidentLyndon B. Johnson
Preceded byLyndon B. Johnson
Succeeded bySpiro Agnew
Deputy President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
January 5, 1977 – January 13, 1978
PresidentJames Eastland
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byGeorge J. Mitchell (1987)
United States Senator
from Minnesota
In office
January 3, 1971 – January 13, 1978
Preceded byEugene McCarthy
Succeeded byMuriel Humphrey
In office
January 3, 1949 – December 29, 1964
Preceded byJoseph H. Ball
Succeeded byWalter Mondale
Senate Majority Whip
In office
January 3, 1961 – December 29, 1964
LeaderMike Mansfield
Preceded byMike Mansfield
Succeeded byRussell B. Long
35th Mayor of Minneapolis
In office
July 2, 1945 – November 30, 1948
Preceded byMarvin L. Kline
Succeeded byEric G. Hoyer
Personal details
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr.

(1911-05-27)May 27, 1911
Wallace, South Dakota, U.S.
DiedJanuary 13, 1978(1978-01-13) (aged 66)
Waverly, Minnesota, U.S.
Resting placeLakewood Cemetery
Political partyDemocratic–Farmer–Labor
Muriel Buck (m. 1936)
Children4, including Skip
EducationUniversity of Minnesota (BA)
Capitol College of Pharmacy
Louisiana State University (MA)

Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was an American politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969. He twice served in the United States Senate, representing Minnesota from 1949 to 1964 and 1971 to 1978. He was the Democratic Party's nominee in the 1968 presidential election, losing to Republican nominee Richard Nixon.

Born in Wallace, South Dakota, Humphrey attended the University of Minnesota. At one point he helped run his father's pharmacy. He earned a master's degree from Louisiana State University and worked for the Works Progress Administration, the Minnesota war service program, and the War Manpower Commission. In 1943, he became a professor of political science at Macalester College and ran a failed campaign for mayor of Minneapolis. He helped found the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) in 1944. In 1945, he won election as mayor of Minneapolis, serving until 1948 and co-founding the liberal anti-communist group Americans for Democratic Action in 1947. In 1948, he was elected to the U.S. Senate and successfully advocated for the inclusion of a proposal to end racial segregation in the 1948 Democratic National Convention's party platform.[1]

Humphrey served three terms in the Senate from 1949 to 1964. He was the Senate Majority Whip from 1961 to 1964. During his tenure, he was the lead author of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, introduced the first initiative to create the Peace Corps, sponsored the clause of the McCarran Act that threatened concentration camps for "subversives", proposed making Communist Party membership a felony, and chaired the Select Committee on Disarmament. He unsuccessfully sought his party's presidential nomination in 1952 and 1960. After Lyndon B. Johnson acceded to the presidency, he chose Humphrey as his running mate, and the Democratic ticket was elected in the landslide 1964 election.

In March 1968, Johnson made his surprise announcement that he would not seek reelection, and Humphrey launched his campaign for the presidency. Loyal to the Johnson administration's policies on the Vietnam War, he saw opposition from many within his own party and avoided the primaries to focus on winning the delegates of non-primary states at the Democratic Convention. His delegate strategy succeeded in clinching the nomination, and he chose Senator Edmund Muskie as his running mate. In the general election, he nearly matched Nixon's tally in the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a wide margin. After the defeat, he returned to the Senate until his death in 1978.

Early life and education

Humphrey was born in a room over his father's drugstore in Wallace, South Dakota.[2] He was the son of Ragnild Kristine Sannes (1883–1973), a Norwegian immigrant,[3] and Hubert Horatio Humphrey Sr. (1882–1949).[4] Humphrey spent most of his youth in Doland, South Dakota, on the Dakota prairie; the town's population was about 600. His father was a licensed pharmacist who served as mayor and a town council member; he also served briefly in the South Dakota state legislature and was a South Dakota delegate to the 1944 and 1948 Democratic National Conventions.[5] In the late 1920s, a severe economic downturn hit Doland; both of the town's banks closed and Humphrey's father struggled to keep his store open.[6]

Humphrey working as a pharmacist in his father's pharmacy.

After his son graduated from Doland's high school, Hubert Sr. left Doland and opened a new drugstore in the larger town of Huron, South Dakota (population 11,000), where he hoped to improve his fortunes.[7] Because of the family's financial struggles, Humphrey had to leave the University of Minnesota after just one year.[8] He earned a pharmacist's license from the Capitol College of Pharmacy in Denver, Colorado (completing a two-year licensure program in just six months),[9] and helped his father run his store from 1931 to 1937.[10] Both father and son were innovative in finding ways to attract customers: "to supplement their business, the Humphreys had become manufacturers ... of patent medicines for both hogs and humans. A sign featuring a wooden pig was hung over the drugstore to tell the public about this unusual service. Farmers got the message, and it was Humphrey's that became known as the farmer's drugstore."[11] One biographer noted, "while Hubert Jr. minded the store and stirred the concoctions in the basement, Hubert Sr. went on the road selling 'Humphrey's BTV' (Body Tone Veterinary), a mineral supplement and dewormer for hogs, and 'Humphrey's Chest Oil' and 'Humphrey's Sniffles' for two-legged sufferers."[12] Humphrey later wrote, "we made 'Humphrey's Sniffles', a substitute for Vick's Nose Drops. I felt ours were better. Vick's used mineral oil, which is not absorbent, and we used a vegetable-oil base, which was. I added benzocaine, a local anesthetic, so that even if the sniffles didn't get better, you felt it less."[13] The various "Humphrey cures ... worked well enough and constituted an important part of the family income ... the farmers that bought the medicines were good customers."[14] Over time Humphrey's Drug Store became a profitable enterprise and the family again prospered.[15] While living in Huron, Humphrey regularly attended Huron's largest Methodist church and became the scoutmaster of the church's Boy Scout group, Troop 6.[10] He "started basketball games in the church basement ... although his scouts had no money for camp in 1931, Hubert found a way in the worst of that summer's dust-storm grit, grasshoppers, and depression to lead an overnight [outing]."[16]

Humphrey did not enjoy working as a pharmacist, and his dream remained to earn a doctorate in political science and become a college professor.[9] His unhappiness was manifested in "stomach pains and fainting spells", though doctors could find nothing wrong with him.[17] In August 1937, he told his father that he wanted to return to the University of Minnesota.[15] Hubert Sr. tried to convince his son not to leave by offering him a full partnership in the store, but Hubert Jr. refused and told his father "how depressed I was, almost physically ill from the work, the dust storms, the conflict between my desire to do something and be somebody and my loyalty to him ... he replied "Hubert, if you aren't happy, then you ought to do something about it."[18] Humphrey returned to the University of Minnesota in 1937 and earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1939.[19] He was a member of Phi Delta Chi, a pharmacy fraternity. He also earned a master's degree from Louisiana State University in 1940, serving as an assistant instructor of political science there.[20] One of his classmates was Russell B. Long, a future U.S. Senator from Louisiana.

He then became an instructor and doctoral student at the University of Minnesota from 1940 to 1941 (joining the American Federation of Teachers), and was a supervisor for the Works Progress Administration (WPA).[21] Humphrey was a star on the university's debate team; one of his teammates was future Minnesota Governor and US Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman.[22] In the 1940 presidential campaign Humphrey and future University of Minnesota president Malcolm Moos debated the merits of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Democratic nominee, and Wendell Willkie, the Republican nominee, on a Minneapolis radio station. Humphrey supported Roosevelt.[23] Humphrey soon became active in Minneapolis politics, and as a result never finished his PhD.[24]

Other Languages
العربية: هيوبرت همفري
aragonés: Hubert Humphrey
asturianu: Hubert Humphrey
azərbaycanca: Hyubert Hamfri
Bân-lâm-gú: Hubert Humphrey
Bikol Central: Hubert Humphrey
čeština: Hubert Humphrey
ދިވެހިބަސް: Hubert Humphrey
español: Hubert Humphrey
français: Hubert Humphrey
Bahasa Indonesia: Hubert H. Humphrey
íslenska: Hubert Humphrey
italiano: Hubert Humphrey
Kiswahili: Hubert Humphrey
Bahasa Melayu: Hubert Humphrey
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hubert Humphrey
Nederlands: Hubert Humphrey
português: Hubert Humphrey
Simple English: Hubert Humphrey
српски / srpski: Хјуберт Хамфри
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hubert Humphrey
Türkçe: Hubert Humphrey
українська: Г'юберт Гамфрі
Tiếng Việt: Hubert Humphrey
Yorùbá: Hubert Humphrey