House of Bourbon

House of Bourbon
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg
Parent houseCapetian dynasty
CountryFrance, Italy, Luxembourg, Navarre, Spain
EtymologyBourbon
Founded1272
FounderRobert, Count of Clermont, the sixth son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon
Current headLouis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou
Final rulerFrance and Navarre: Charles X (1824–1830)
Of the French: Louis Philippe I (1830–1848)
Parma: Roberto I (1854–1859)
Two Sicilies: Francis II (1859–1861)
Titles
Estate(s)France, Navarre, Spain, Two Sicilies, Luxembourg, Parma
DepositionFrance and Navarre, 1830: July Revolution
France, 1848: February Revolution
Parma, 1859: Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia
Two Sicilies, 1861: Italian unification
Cadet branchesBourbons of Spain

House of Orléans

House of Condé (extinct)

The House of Bourbon (English: ən/, also UK: n/; French: [buʁbɔ̃]; Spanish: Borbón) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon.[1] The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings.

The senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon. In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line. Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV.[1] Bourbon monarchs then united to France the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown.

The Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, and the Princes de Conti were a cadet line of the Condé branch. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.

In 1700, at the death of Charles II of Spain, the Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in the male line. Under the will of the childless Charles II, the second grandson of Louis XIV of France was named as his successor, to preclude the union of the thrones of France and Spain. The prince, then Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain.[1] Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, and similar arrangements later kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma. The Spanish House of Bourbon (rendered in Spanish as Borbón [boɾˈβon]) has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, and since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734 to 1806 and in Sicily from 1734 to 1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 to 1860. They also ruled in Parma from 1731 to 1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859.

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (ruled 1919-1964) married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have also been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.

All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France.

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The three dynasties of Bourbon

The first were the lords of Bourbon, who died out by the males in 1171, then by the women in 1216. Their coat of arms are: D'or au lion de gueules, et à l'orle de huit coquilles d'azur Nicolas Louis Achaintre, "Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of Bourbon" vol. 1, ed. Didot, 1825, page 45.

The second family formed by the marriage of the last descendant of the first family, Mahaut de Bourbon with Guy de Dampierre, this land passed to the house of Dampierre in 1196. The coat of arms of this family is: "De gueules à deux léopards d'or, avec couronne de baron " Nicolas Louis Achaintre, "Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of Bourbon" vol. 1, ed. Didot, 1825, page 30, but they took the coat of arms of the previous ones. The son of Guy de Dampierre and Mahaut de Bourbon, Archambaud VIII, took the name and arms of his mother, "de Bourbon", the House of Bourbon-Dampierre. By the marriage of, Agnès de Bourbon-Dampierre (died around 1287), with Jean de Bourgogne ( 1231-1267), this important lordship passed to their daughter Béatrice de Bourgogne (1257-1310), lady of Bourbon, then to her husband* Robert of Clermont (1256-1317), and penultimate child of Saint Louis, thus possessing the land of Bourbon by "the right of the woman ( de iure uxoris ).

The third house of Bourbon acceded to the throne of Navarre in 1555, then to the throne of France in 1589 by Henri IV. His coat of arms are: "D'azur, fleurs-de-lys d'or sans nombre, l'écu brisé d'un bâton ou cotice de gueules, brochant sur le tout, avec couronne de fils de France. The name House of Bourbon was then used to describe the entire Maison de France, officially since 29, date of death of Hélène de Courtenay (1689-1768), with which was extinguished the branch of Courtenay, extinction which made the house of France the only branch Dynaste resulting from the dukes of Bourbo .

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Huis van Bourbon
العربية: آل بوربون
asturianu: Casa de Borbón
azərbaycanca: Burbonlar
Bân-lâm-gú: Bourbon Ông-ka
беларуская: Род Бурбонаў
български: Бурбони
čeština: Bourboni
Deutsch: Haus Bourbon
eesti: Bourbonid
español: Casa de Borbón
Esperanto: Burbonoj
euskara: Borboi etxea
한국어: 부르봉가
հայերեն: Բուրբոններ
hrvatski: Burbonci
Bahasa Indonesia: Wangsa Bourbon
íslenska: Búrbónar
italiano: Borbone
ქართული: ბურბონები
қазақша: Бурбондар
Кыргызча: Бурбондор
latviešu: Burboni
lietuvių: Burbonai
magyar: Bourbon-ház
македонски: Бурбонци
Bahasa Melayu: Wangsa Bourbon
Nederlands: Huis Bourbon
日本語: ブルボン家
norsk nynorsk: Huset Bourbon
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Burbonlar
polski: Burbonowie
português: Casa de Bourbon
română: Casa de Bourbon
Runa Simi: Burbuwnpa wasin
русский: Бурбоны
саха тыла: Бурбон
Simple English: House of Bourbon
slovenčina: Bourbonovci
slovenščina: Bourboni
српски / srpski: Династија Бурбон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bourbon (dinastija)
svenska: Huset Bourbon
tarandíne: Borbóne/Barése
українська: Бурбони
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Bourbon
吴语: 波旁王朝
粵語: 波旁王朝
中文: 波旁王朝