Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak
حسني مبارك
Hosni Mubarak ritratto.jpg
Mubarak in 2009
4th President of Egypt
In office
14 October 1981 – 11 February 2011
Prime Minister
Vice PresidentOmar Suleiman[a]
Preceded bySufi Abu Taleb (Acting)
Succeeded byMohamed Hussein Tantawi (Interim)
Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
7 October 1981 – 2 January 1982
PresidentSufi Abu Taleb (Acting)
Preceded byAnwar Sadat
Succeeded byAhmad Fuad Mohieddin
15th Vice-President of Egypt
In office
16 April 1975 – 14 October 1981
PresidentAnwar Sadat
Preceded byHussein el-Shafei
Mahmoud Fawzi
Succeeded byOmar Suleiman[a]
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
16 July 2009 – 11 February 2011
Preceded byRaúl Castro
Succeeded byMohamed Hussein Tantawi (Acting)
Commander of the Air Force
In office
23 April 1972 – 16 April 1975
PresidentAnwar Sadat
Preceded byAli Mustafa Baghdady
Succeeded byMahmoud Shaker
Director of the Egyptian Air Academy
In office
November 1967 – June 1969[1]
Preceded byYahia Saleh Al-Aidaros
Succeeded byMahmoud Shaker
Personal details
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak

(1928-05-04) 4 May 1928 (age 91)
Kafr-El Meselha, Kingdom of Egypt
Political partyNational Democratic Party (1978–2011)
Suzanne Thabet (m. 1959)
Alma materEgyptian Military Academy
Egyptian Air Academy
Frunze Military Academy
Military service
Allegiance Egypt
Branch/service Egyptian Air Force
Years of service1950–1975
RankAir Chief Marshal - Egyptian Air Force rank.pngAir Chief Marshal[2]
CommandsEgyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Academy
Beni Suef Air Base
Cairo West Air Base
a. ^ Office vacant from 14 October 1981 to 29 January 2011
b. ^ as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
c.^ c. military rank withdrawn after trial

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني السيد مبارك‎, romanizedMuḥammad Ḥusnī as-Sayyid Mubārak, Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni (ʔe)sˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk]; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973.[2] Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.[2] He assumed presidency after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years.[3] Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[4] On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[5][6]

On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power.[7] Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution.[8] These trials began on 3 August 2011.[9] On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial.[10] On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences.[11] Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court.[12] He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and released on 24 March 2017.[13][14]

Early life and Air Force career

Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.[15] On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950[2] and eventually receiving a bachelor's degree in aviation sciences.

Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a Spitfire fighter squadron.[2] Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.[2] From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.

Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander; he commanded the Cairo West Air Base in October 1966 then briefly commanded the Beni Suef Air Base.[2] In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years.[16] Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force.

In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the Yom Kippur War, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero.[17] The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.[2][18] Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war.[19] The Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity.[20] However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly. She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973. She also said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intends to take legal action.[21]

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پنجابی: حسنی مبارک
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Simple English: Hosni Mubarak
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українська: Хосні Мубарак
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粵語: 穆巴拉克