Horus

Horus
Horus standing.svg
Horus was often the ancient Egyptians' national tutelary deity. He was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent, or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.
Major cult centerNekhen, Edfu
SymbolEye of Horus
Personal information
ConsortSerket (as Horus the Elder), Hathor (in one version)
OffspringImset, Hapi, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef (as Haroeris), Ihy
ParentsOsiris and Isis
SiblingsOsiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys (as Horus the Elder), Anubis (as Horus the Younger)

Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was worshipped from at least the late prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Roman Egypt. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists.[1] These various forms may possibly be different manifestations of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality.[2] He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a lanner falcon or peregrine falcon, or as a man with a falcon head.[3]

The earliest recorded form of Horus is the tutelary deity of Nekhen in Upper Egypt, who is the first known national god, specifically related to the ruling pharaoh who in time came to be regarded as a manifestation of Horus in life and Osiris in death.[1] The most commonly encountered family relationship describes Horus as the son of Isis and Osiris, and he plays a key role in the Osiris myth as Osiris's heir and the rival to Set, the murderer of Osiris. In another tradition Hathor is regarded as his mother and sometimes as his wife.[1] Horus served many functions, most notably being a god of kingship and the sky.

Etymology

G5
ḥr "Horus"
in hieroglyphs

Horus is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs as ḥr.w "Falcon"; the pronunciation has been reconstructed as ħaːruw. Additional meanings are thought to have been "the distant one" or "one who is above, over".[4] As the language changed over time, it appeared in Coptic varieties variously as hoːɾ or ħoːɾ and was adopted into ancient Greek as Ὧρος Hōros (pronounced at the time as hoːɾos). It also survives in Late Egyptian and Coptic theophoric name forms such as Siese "son of Isis" and Harsiese "Horus, Son of Isis".

Nekheny may have been another falcon god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, with whom Horus was identified from early on.

Horus may be shown as a falcon on the Narmer Palette, dating from about the 31st century BC.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Horus
Alemannisch: Horus
العربية: حورس
asturianu: Horus
azərbaycanca: Hor (tanrı)
বাংলা: হোরাস
беларуская: Хор (бажаство)
български: Хор (бог)
བོད་ཡིག: ཧོ་ལུའུ་སི།
brezhoneg: Horus
català: Horus
čeština: Hor
dansk: Horus
Deutsch: Horus
eesti: Horos
Ελληνικά: Ώρος
español: Horus
Esperanto: Horuso
euskara: Horus
فارسی: حوروس
français: Horus
Gaeilge: Hóras
galego: Horus
한국어: 호루스
हिन्दी: होरस
hrvatski: Horus
Bahasa Indonesia: Horus
íslenska: Hórus
italiano: Horus
עברית: הורוס
Basa Jawa: Horus
ქართული: ჰოროსი
Latina: Horus
latviešu: Hors
lietuvių: Horas
magyar: Hórusz
македонски: Хор (бог)
മലയാളം: ഹോറസ്
მარგალური: ჰოროსი
مصرى: حورس
Bahasa Melayu: Dewa Horus
Nederlands: Horus
日本語: ホルス
norsk: Horus
occitan: Her
پنجابی: حورس
پښتو: هوروس
polski: Horus
português: Hórus
română: Horus
русский: Гор (бог)
Scots: Horus
shqip: Horusi
sicilianu: Horus
සිංහල: හොරස්
Simple English: Horus
سنڌي: حورس
slovenčina: Hor (božstvo)
slovenščina: Hor
српски / srpski: Хорус
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Horus
suomi: Horus
svenska: Horus
Tagalog: Horus
தமிழ்: ஓரசு
ไทย: ฮอรัส
Türkçe: Horus
українська: Гор
اردو: حورس
Tiếng Việt: Horus
Zazaki: Horus
中文: 荷鲁斯