Hong Kong

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
(Chinese in Traditional characters)
Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
(Hong Kong Cantonese in Yale romanisation)
Anthem: "March of the Volunteers"[1]
義勇軍進行曲
Yihyúhnggwān Jeunhàhngkūk
City flower:
Bauhinia blakeana
洋紫荊
Yèuhngjígīng
Hong Kong in China (zoomed) (+all claims hatched).svg
Hong Kong on the globe (Southeast Asia centered).svg
Location of Hong Kong
Official languages
Regional languageCantonese[a]
Official scriptsTraditional Chinese[b]
English alphabet
Ethnic groups (2016)92.0% Chinese
2.5% Filipino
2.1% Indonesians
0.8% European descent
2.6% others[7]
DemonymHong Kongese
Hongkonger
GovernmentDevolved executive-led system within a socialist republic
Carrie Lam
Matthew Cheung
Paul Chan
Teresa Cheng
Andrew Leung
Geoffrey Ma
LegislatureLegislative Council
National representation
36 deputies (of 2,924)
203 delegates[8]
Special administrative region within the People's Republic of China
26 January 1841
29 August 1842
18 October 1860
9 June 1898
25 December 1941
to 30 August 1945

1 July 1997
Area
• Total
2,779[9] km2 (1,073 sq mi) (168th)
• Water (%)
3.16 (35 km2; 13.51 sq mi)[9]
Population
• 2018 estimate
7,448,900[10] (102nd)
• Density
6,777[11]/km2 (17,552.3/sq mi) (4th)
GDP (PPP)2018[12] estimate
• Total
$482.101 billion (44th)
• Per capita
$64,533 (10th)
GDP (nominal)2018[12] estimate
• Total
$364.782 billion (35th)
• Per capita
$48,829 (16th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 53.9[13]
high
HDI (2017)Increase 0.933[14]
very high · 7th
CurrencyHong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Hong Kong Time)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
yyyy年mm月dd日
Driving sideleft
Calling code+852
ISO 3166 codeHK
Internet TLD

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港; pronunciation in Hong Kong Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities[c] in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth-most-densely-populated region.

Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing China ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842.[16] The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898.[17][18] The territory was returned to China when the lease expired in 1997.[19] As a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China.[20]

Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages,[16] the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.[21] It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity,[22][23] and its legal tender (the Hong Kong dollar) is the world's 13th-most-traded currency.[24] Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality.[25]

The territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in the world, most surrounding Victoria Harbour.[26] Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, and has the seventh-longest life expectancy in the world.[9] Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation,[27] air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates.[28]

Etymology

Hong Kong
Hong Kong in Chinese 2.svg
"Hong Kong" in Chinese characters
Chinese香港
Cantonese YaleAbout this soundHēunggóng
or Hèunggóng
Literal meaningFragrant Harbour,
Incense Harbour[29][30]
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Traditional Chinese香港特別行政區
(香港特區)
Simplified Chinese香港特别行政区
(香港特区)
Cantonese YaleHēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
(Hēunggóng Dahkkēui)
or
Hèunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
(Hèunggóng Dahkkēui)

The name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780,[31] originally referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.[32] Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is generally believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng. The name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".[29][30][33] "Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Victoria Harbour developed.[33] Sir John Davis (the second colonial governor) offered an alternative origin; Davis said that the name derived from "Hoong-keang" ("red torrent"), reflecting the colour of soil over which a waterfall on the island flowed.[34]

The simplified name Hong Kong was frequently used by 1810,[35] also written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government officially adopted the two-word name.[36] Some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.[37][38]

Other Languages
Acèh: Hong Kong
Afrikaans: Hongkong
Akan: Hong Kong
Alemannisch: Hongkong
አማርኛ: ሆንግ ኮንግ
Ænglisc: Hong Kong
Аҧсшәа: Гонконг
العربية: هونغ كونغ
aragonés: Hong Kong
অসমীয়া: হংকং
asturianu: Ḥong Kong
azərbaycanca: Honkonq
تۆرکجه: هونق کونق
bamanankan: Hong Kong
বাংলা: হংকং
Bân-lâm-gú: Hiong-káng
Basa Banyumasan: Hong Kong
башҡортса: Гонконг
беларуская: Ганконг
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ганконг
भोजपुरी: हांगकांग
Bikol Central: Hong Kong
Bislama: Hong Kong
български: Хонконг
Boarisch: Hongkong
བོད་ཡིག: ཧོང་ཀོང་།
bosanski: Hong Kong
brezhoneg: Hong Kong
буряад: Хонконг
català: Hong Kong
Чӑвашла: Гонконг
Cebuano: Hong Kong
čeština: Hongkong
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Hong Kong
Chi-Chewa: Hong Kong
Cymraeg: Hong Cong
dansk: Hongkong
Deutsch: Hongkong
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހޮންކޮންގު
डोटेली: हङकङ
eesti: Hongkong
Ελληνικά: Χονγκ Κονγκ
español: Hong Kong
Esperanto: Honkongo
estremeñu: Hong Kong
euskara: Hong Kong
eʋegbe: Hong Kong
فارسی: هنگ کنگ
Fiji Hindi: Hong Kong
føroyskt: Hongkong
français: Hong Kong
Frysk: Hongkong
Gaeilge: Hong Cong
Gagauz: Hong Kong
Gàidhlig: Hong Kong
galego: Hong Kong
ГӀалгӀай: Гонконг
贛語: 香港
Gĩkũyũ: Hong Kong
ગુજરાતી: હોંગકોંગ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hiông-kóng
한국어: 홍콩
Hausa: Hong Kong
հայերեն: Հոնկոնգ
hrvatski: Hong Kong
Igbo: Hong Kong
Ilokano: Hong Kong
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: হংকং
Bahasa Indonesia: Hong Kong
interlingua: Hong Kong
Interlingue: Hongkong
Ирон: Гонконг
isiXhosa: Hong Kong
isiZulu: Hong Kong
íslenska: Hong Kong
italiano: Hong Kong
עברית: הונג קונג
Basa Jawa: Hong Kong
Kabɩyɛ: Hɔŋkɔŋ
kalaallisut: Hongkong
Kapampangan: Hong Kong
ქართული: ჰონგ-კონგი
қазақша: Гонконг
kernowek: Hong Kong
Kinyarwanda: Hongo Kongo
Kiswahili: Hong Kong
Kreyòl ayisyen: Hong Kong
kurdî: Hong Kong
Кыргызча: Гонконг
لۊری شومالی: ھونگ کونگ
Latina: Hongcongum
latviešu: Honkonga
Lëtzebuergesch: Hong Kong
лезги: Гонконг
lietuvių: Honkongas
Ligure: Hong Kong
Limburgs: Hong Kong
lingála: Hong Kong
Lingua Franca Nova: Hongkong
lumbaart: Hong Kong
magyar: Hongkong
मैथिली: हङकङ
македонски: Хонгконг
Malagasy: Hong Kong
മലയാളം: ഹോങ്കോങ്
Māori: Hongipua
मराठी: हाँग काँग
მარგალური: ჰონგ-კონგი
مازِرونی: هونگ کونگ
Bahasa Melayu: Hong Kong
Baso Minangkabau: Hong Kong
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hiŏng-gē̤ng
монгол: Хонконг
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟောင်ကောင်
Nāhuatl: Hong Kong
Nederlands: Hongkong
नेपाली: हङकङ
नेपाल भाषा: हङकङ
日本語: 香港
Napulitano: Hong Kong
нохчийн: Гонконг
norsk: Hongkong
norsk nynorsk: Hongkong
Novial: Hong Kong
occitan: Hong Kong
олык марий: Гонконг
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହଂକଂ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gonkong
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਾਂਗਕਾਂਗ
پنجابی: ہانگ کانگ
Papiamentu: Hong Kong
Patois: Ang Kang
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ហុងកុង
Picard: Hong Kong
Piemontèis: Hong Kong
Plattdüütsch: Hongkong
polski: Hongkong
português: Hong Kong
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gonkong
română: Hong Kong
Runa Simi: Hong Kong
русиньскый: Гонґ Конґ
русский: Гонконг
саха тыла: Хоҥ Коҥ
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱦᱚᱝᱠᱚᱝ
sardu: Hong Kong
Scots: Hong Kong
Sesotho: Hong Kong
Setswana: Hong Kong
shqip: Hong Kong
sicilianu: Hong Kong
සිංහල: හොංකොං
Simple English: Hong Kong
slovenčina: Hongkong
slovenščina: Hong Kong
ślůnski: Hůngkůng
Soomaaliga: Hong Kong
کوردی: ھۆنگ کۆنگ
српски / srpski: Хонгконг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hong Kong
Basa Sunda: Hong Kong
suomi: Hongkong
svenska: Hongkong
Tagalog: Hong Kong
தமிழ்: ஆங்காங்
tarandíne: Hong Kong
татарча/tatarça: Һоң Коң
тоҷикӣ: Ҳонгконг
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hong Kong
Türkçe: Hong Kong
Türkmençe: Gonkong
українська: Гонконг
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شياڭگاڭ
Vahcuengh: Yanghgangj
vèneto: Hong Kong
vepsän kel’: Honkong
Tiếng Việt: Hồng Kông
Volapük: Honkeän
walon: Hong Kong
文言: 香港
Winaray: Hong Kong
Wolof: Ooŋ Koŋ
吴语: 香港
ייִדיש: האנג קאנג
Yorùbá: Họ́ng Kọng
粵語: 香港
Zazaki: Hong Kong
žemaitėška: Huonkuongs
中文: 香港