Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens
Temporal range: 0.35–0 MaMiddle PleistocenePresent
Akha man and woman in northern Thailand – husband carries stem of banana-plant, which will be fed to their pigs
Male and female H s. sapiens
(Akha in northern Thailand,
2010 photograph)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Primates
Suborder:Haplorhini
Infraorder:Simiiformes
Family:Hominidae
Subfamily:Homininae
Tribe:Hominini
Genus:Homo
Species:H. sapiens
Binomial name
Homo sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758
Subspecies

H. s. sapiens
H. s. idaltu
H. s. neanderthalensis(?)
H. s. rhodesiensis(?)
(others proposed)

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species. The name is Latin for "wise man" and was introduced in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus (who is himself also the type specimen).

Extinct species of the genus Homo include Homo erectus, extant during roughly 1.8 to 0.1 million years ago, and a number of other species (by some authors considered subspecies of either H. sapiens or H. erectus). H. sapiens idaltu (2003) is a proposed extinct subspecies of H. sapiens.

The age of speciation of H. sapiens out of ancestral H. erectus (or an intermediate species such as Homo heidelbergensis) is estimated to have taken place at roughly 300,000 years ago. Sustained archaic admixture is known to have taken place both in Africa and (following the recent Out-Of-Africa expansion) in Eurasia, between about 100,000 to 30,000 years ago.

In certain contexts, the term anatomically modern humans[2] (AMH) is used to distinguish H. sapiens as having an anatomy consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from varieties of extinct archaic humans. This is useful especially for times and regions where anatomically modern and archaic humans co-existed, e.g. in Paleolithic Europe.

Name and taxonomy

The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758).[3] The Latin noun homō (genitive hominis) means "human being", while the participle sapiēns means "discerning, wise, sensible".

The species is taken to have emerged from a predecessor within the genus Homo around 300,000 to 200,000 years ago.[4] A problem with the morphological classification of "anatomically modern" was that it would not have included certain extant populations. For this reason, a lineage-based (cladistic) definition of H. sapiens has been suggested, in which H. sapiens would by definition refer to the modern human lineage following the split from the Neanderthal lineage. Such a cladistic definition would extend the age of H. sapiens to upward of 500,000 years.[5]

Extant human populations have historically been divided into subspecies, but since c. the 1980s all extant groups tend to be subsumed into a single species, H. sapiens, avoiding division into subspecies altogether.[6]

Some sources show Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) as a subspecies (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis).[7][8] Similarly, the discovered specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies (Homo sapiens rhodesiensis), although it remains more common to treat these last two as separate species within the genus Homo rather than as subspecies within H. sapiens.[9]

The subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens is sometimes used informally instead of "modern humans" or "anatomically modern humans". It has no formal authority associated with it.[10] By the early 2000s, it becomes common to use H. s. sapiens of the ancestral population of all contemporary humans, and as such is equivalent to the binomial H. sapiens in the more restrictive sense (considering H. neanderthalensis a separate species).[11]

Other Languages
العربية: إنسان عاقل
aragonés: Homo sapiens
arpetan: Homo sapiens
Basa Banyumasan: Menungsa
беларуская: Чалавек разумны
भोजपुरी: होमो सैपियंस
български: Разумен човек
bosanski: Homo sapiens
Cymraeg: Homo sapiens
español: Homo sapiens
estremeñu: Homo Sapiens
français: Homo sapiens
interlingua: Humano
italiano: Homo sapiens
қазақша: Гомо сапиенс
Kreyòl ayisyen: Homo sapiens
Latina: Homo sapiens
Lëtzebuergesch: Mënsch
Mirandés: Homo sapiens
Novial: Homo sapiens
occitan: Homo sapiens
Plattdüütsch: Homo sapiens
português: Homo sapiens
română: Homo sapiens
русиньскый: Чоловік розумный
Simple English: Homo sapiens
српски / srpski: Homo sapijens
українська: Людина розумна
vèneto: Homo sapiens
Tiếng Việt: Homo sapiens
吴语: 智人
粵語: 智人
中文: 智人