Homo luzonensis

Homo luzonensis
Temporal range: Late Pleistocene,
0.07–0.065 Ma
Homo luzonensis metatarsal.jpg
CCH1, a 67,000 year old fossil third metatarsal bone attributed to Homo luzonensis.
Scientific classification edit
H. luzonensis
Binomial name
Homo luzonensis
Détroit et al., 2019

Homo luzonensis is an extinct species of archaic humans in the genus Homo.[1] In 2007, a third metatarsal bone (MT3) was discovered in Callao Cave, Luzon, Philippines by Filipino archaeologists Armand Mijares and Philip J. Piper and initially identified as modern human by Florent Détroit. This find was dated using uranium series ablation to an age of 66,700 ± 1000 years before present, while associated faunal remains and a hominin tooth found in 2011 delivered dates of around 50,000 years ago.[2]

In 2019, Armand Mijares et al. described the subsequent discovery of "twelve additional hominin elements that represent at least three individuals that were found in the same stratigraphic layer of Callao Cave as the previously discovered metatarsal" and identified the fossils as belonging to a newly discovered species, Homo luzonensis, on the basis of differences from previously identified species in the genus Homo. This included H. floresiensis and H. sapiens.[2][3][4] However, some scientists think additional evidence is required to confirm the fossils as a new species, rather than a locally adapted population of other Homo populations, such as H. erectus or Denisovan.[5]


Interior of Callao Cave on Luzon in the Philippines, where the fossil remains were found.

Although the initial hypothesis of human migration to the Philippines proposed the use of land bridges during the last ice age, modern bathymetric readings of the Mindoro Strait and Sibutu Passage suggest that neither would have been fully closed (which correlates with the Philippines being biogeographically separated from Sundaland by the Wallace Line[note 1]) and a sea crossing has always been necessary to reach Luzon and other oceanic islands of the Philippines.

Five of seven fossilized teeth ascribed to H. luzonensis.

The small sizes of the hominins' molars suggest that it may have undergone island dwarfing, similar to H. floresiensis,[5] although no estimate of its height is currently possible. An expert not associated with the study commented that the curvature of its digits suggests it may have climbed trees.[5]

The fossil human remains were associated with the remains of deer (Cervus mariannus), wild pig, and an extinct bovine.[2] Some of the animal bones exhibit potential cut marks, suggesting that they were butchered.[6] Much earlier stone tools and the almost complete fossilized skeleton of a butchered rhinoceros dating back to c. 700,000 years ago were found by Thomas Ingicco and colleagues in the nearby San Pedro site in Rizal, Kalinga.[7]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Homo luzonensis
العربية: إنسان كالاو
Bân-lâm-gú: Homo luzonensis
čeština: Homo luzonensis
español: Homo luzonensis
français: Homme de Callao
한국어: 칼라오 원인
Bahasa Indonesia: Homo luzonensis
italiano: Homo luzonensis
lietuvių: Homo luzonensis
Nederlands: Homo luzonensis
português: Homo luzonensis
русский: Homo luzonensis
Simple English: Homo luzonensis
українська: Людина з Кальяо
Tiếng Việt: Di cốt Callao