Hokkien

Quanzhang
Minnan Proper 閩南語
Quanzhang speech 闽台泉漳片闽南语
Hokkien 福建話
閩南話 / 闽南话
Bân-lâm-oē / Bân-lâm-uē
Native to China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and overseas communities
Region Southern Fujian province and other south-eastern coastal areas of Mainland China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia
Ethnicity Hoklo (subgroup of Han Chinese)
Native speakers
37 million[ citation needed] (date missing)
Sino-Tibetan
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
None (one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements in the Taiwan [1])
Regulated by None
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog hokk1242 [2]
fuki1235 [3]
Banlamgu.svg
Distribution of Southern Min languages. Quanzhang (Hokkien) is dark green.
Hokkien Map.svg
Distribution of Quanzhang (Minnan Proper) dialects within Fujian Province and Taiwan. Lengna dialect (Longyan Min) is a variant of Southern Min that is spoken near the Hakka speaking region in Southwest Fujian.
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Hokkien
Traditional Chinese 福建話
Simplified Chinese 福建话
Hoklo
Traditional Chinese 福佬話
Simplified Chinese 福佬话

Hokkien ( n/; [a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē) [b] or Minnan Proper (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken throughout the Southern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan and Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min.

It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese and Leizhou dialect. Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka dialects in Fujian province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien.

Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia). [4].

The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords.

Names

Chinese speakers of the Quanzhang variety of Southern Min refer to the mainstream Southern Min language as

  • Bân-lâm-gú/Bân-lâm-oē (閩南語/閩南話, literally 'language or speech of Southern Min') in Mainland China and Taiwan [5],
  • Tâi-gí (臺語, literally 'Taiwanese language') in Taiwan, or
  • Hok-kiàn-oē (福建話, literally 'Fujian speech') in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.
  • Lán-lâng-ōe (咱儂話, literally 'our people's language') in the Philippines.

In parts of Southeast Asia and in the English-speaking communities, the term Hokkien ([hɔk˥kiɛn˨˩]) is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian (福建), the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, and does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches also present in Fujian such as Eastern Min or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division (Chinese: 泉漳片; pinyin: Quánzhāng piàn) of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Hō-ló-oē
Cebuano: Hō-ló-oē
Deutsch: Hokkien
فارسی: هاکین
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Hokkien
italiano: Lingua hokkien
മലയാളം: ഹൊക്കീൻ
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Hokkien
norsk: Hokkien
polski: Hokkien
português: Língua hokkien
Simple English: Hokkien
Tagalog: Hokkien
Türkçe: Hokkien
中文: 泉漳片