Hokkien

Quanzhang
Minnan Proper 閩南語
Quanzhang Minnan 泉漳片
Hokkien-Taiwanese 闽台泉漳话
閩南話 / 闽南话
Bân-lâm-ōe / Bân-lâm-uē
Native toChina, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and overseas communities
RegionSouthern Fujian province and other south-eastern coastal areas of Mainland China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia
EthnicityHoklo (subgroup of Han Chinese)
Native speakers
20 million in Southern Fujian and Taiwan, 20 million to 30 million overseas.
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
None (one of the statutory languages for public transport announcements in Taiwan[1])
Regulated byMinistry of Education in Taiwan and NGOs in Taiwan.
Language codes
ISO 639-3
hokk1242[2]
fuki1235[3]
Banlamgu.svg
Distribution of Southern Min languages. Quanzhang (Hokkien) is dark green.
Hokkien Map.svg
Distribution of Quanzhang (Minnan Proper) dialects within Fujian Province and Taiwan. Lengna dialect (Longyan Min) is a variant of Southern Min that is spoken near the Hakka speaking region in Southwest Fujian.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Hokkien
Traditional Chinese福建話
Simplified ChineseSimplified ChineseHokkien POJHok-kiàn-ōe
Hoklo
Traditional Chinese福佬話
Simplified ChineseSimplified ChineseHokkien POJHok-ló-ōe

Hokkien (n/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-ōe)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/闽南话), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min.

It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese and Leizhou dialect.

Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).[4]

The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.

Names

Chinese speakers of the Quanzhang variety of Southern Min refer to the mainstream Southern Min language as

  • Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-ōe (闽南语/闽南话; 閩南語/閩南話, literally 'language or speech of Southern Min') in Mainland China and Taiwan.[5]
  • Tâi-gí (臺語, literally 'Taiwanese language') in Taiwan.
  • Hok-kiàn-ōe (福建话; 福建話, literally 'Fujian speech') in Burma,Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.
  • Lán-lâng-ōe (咱儂話, literally 'our people's language') in the Philippines.

In parts of Southeast Asia and in the English-speaking communities, the term Hokkien ([hɔk˥kiɛn˨˩]) is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian (福建), the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, and does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches also present in Fujian such as Eastern Min or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division (Chinese: 泉漳片; pinyin: Quánzhāng piàn) of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.

Other Languages
تۆرکجه: هاکین دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Hō-ló-oē
Cebuano: Hō-ló-oē
Deutsch: Hokkien
فارسی: هاکین
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Hokkien
italiano: Lingua hokkien
മലയാളം: ഹൊക്കീൻ
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Hokkien
norsk: Hokkien
polski: Hokkien
português: Língua hokkien
Simple English: Hokkien
Tagalog: Hokkien
Türkçe: Hokkien
اردو: ہاکیئن
中文: 泉漳片