Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City

Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh

Saigon or Sài Gòn
Ho Chi Minh City
Clockwise, from top left: Bến Thành Market, Ho Chi Minh City Hall, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Independence Palace, Municipal Theatre, View of central Ho Chi Minh City from District 2
Official seal of Ho Chi Minh City
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the Far East
Location in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam
Location in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City is located in Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Location in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City is located in Southeast Asia
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City (Southeast Asia)
Ho Chi Minh City is located in Asia
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City (Asia)
Ho Chi Minh City is located in Earth
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City (Earth)
Coordinates: 10°48′N 106°39′E / 10°48′N 106°39′E / 10.800; 106.650

Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; [tʰàjŋ̟ fǒ hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (About this soundlisten) or [tʰàn fǒ hò cǐ mɨ̄n]), also known by its former name of Saigon (Vietnamese: Sài Gòn; [sàj ɣɔ̀n] or [ʂàj ɣɔ̀ŋ]), is the most populous city in Vietnam with a population of 8.4 million (13 million in the metropolitan area) as of 2017.[5] Located in southeast Vietnam, the metropolis surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres (796 square miles).

Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of French Indochina from 1887 to 1902 and again from 1945 to 1954. Saigon would later become the capital of South Vietnam from 1955 until its fall in 1975. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh (although the name Sài Gòn is still widely used).[6]

Ho Chi Minh City is the financial centre of Vietnam and is classifed as a Beta+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[7] It is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange by total market capitalization in Vietnam and the headquarters of many national and international banks and companies.

Ho Chi Minh City is the most visited city in Vietnam, with 6.3 million visitors in 2017.[8] Many of the city's landmarks which are well known to international visitors include the Bến Thành Market, Ho Chi Minh City Hall, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Independence Palace and the Municipal Theatre. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it is the busiest airport in Vietnam handling 36 million passengers in 2017.[9]

Etymology

Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic, cultural and political groups. In 1623, Khmer king Chey Chettha II (1618–1628) allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn War further to the north to settle in the area, which they colloquially referred to as Sài Gòn, and to set up a custom house at the city then known as Prey Nôkôr.[10] In the 1690s, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its surroundings. Control of the city and the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định (). This name remained until the time of French conquest in the 1860s, when the occupying force adopted the name Saïgon for the city, a westernized form of the traditional name,[11] although the city was still indicated as on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891.[12] Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after Hồ Chí Minh, the late North Vietnamese leader.[nb 1] Even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn/Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally, especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. However, there is a technical difference between the two terms: Sài Gòn is commonly used to refer to the city center in District 1 and the adjacent areas, while Ho Chi Minh City is referred more to the entire modern city with all its urban and rural districts.[13]

Saigon

Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.

An etymology of Saigon (or Sài Gòn in Vietnamese) is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word (Hán tự: ) meaning "firewood, lops, twigs; palisade", while Gòn is another Sino-Vietnamese word (Hán tự: ) meaning "stick, pole, bole", and whose meaning evolved into "cotton" in Vietnamese (bông gòn, literally "cotton stick", i.e., "cotton plant", then shortened to gòn). This name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, and which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas. It may also refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor, already referred.[14]

Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon ( ), the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment" (French: quais),[nb 2] and Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor (Khmer: ព្រៃនគរ). Prey means forest or jungle, and nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, and related to the English word 'Nation' — thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom".[nb 3]

Truong Mealy (former director of King Norodom Sihanouk's royal Cabinet), says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor (Khmer: ព្រះរាជនគរ), "Royal City"; later locally corrupted to "Prey kor", meaning "kapok forest", from which "Saigon" was derived ("kor" meaning "kapok" in Khmer and Cham, going into Vietnamese as "gòn" ).[15]

Ho Chi Minh City

The current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, adopted in 1976 and abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, and in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville (the circumflex is sometimes omitted), abbreviated HCMV. The name commemorates Hồ Chí Minh, the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years. It combines a common Vietnamese surname (Hồ, ) with a given name meaning "enlightened will" (from Sino-Vietnamese ; Chí meaning 'will' or 'spirit', and Minh meaning 'light'), in essence, meaning "light bringer".[16]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Ho Chi Minh-stad
Alemannisch: Ho-Chi-Minh-Stadt
Avañe'ẽ: Táva Ho Chi Minh
Aymar aru: Ho Chi Min marka
azərbaycanca: Hoşimin
bamanankan: Ho Chi Minh-Ville
Bahasa Banjar: Ho Chi Minh City
Bân-lâm-gú: Hồ Chí Minh Chhī
Basa Banyumasan: Kota Ho Chi Minh
башҡортса: Хошимин
беларуская: Хашымін
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Хашымін
Bikol Central: Ho Chi Minh City
български: Хошимин
brezhoneg: Kêr Ho-Chi-Minh
буряад: Хошимин
Чӑвашла: Хошимин
Chamoru: Ho Chi Minh
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Ciudad Ho Chi Minh
chiTumbuka: Ho Chi Minh City
davvisámegiella: Hồ Chí Minh gávpot
dolnoserbski: Ho Chi Minh město
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ho Chi Minh City
Esperanto: Ho-Ĉi-Min-urbo
estremeñu: Ciá Ho Chi Minh
Fiji Hindi: Ho Chi Minh City
føroyskt: Ho Chi Minh City
贛語: 胡志明市
Gĩkũyũ: Ho Chi Minh City
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hồ Chí Minh Sṳ
한국어: 호찌민시
հայերեն: Հոշիմին
hornjoserbsce: Ho Chi Minh město
Bahasa Indonesia: Kota Hồ Chí Minh
interlingua: Ho Chi Minh Citate
Interlingue: Ho Chi Minh Cité
Ирон: Хошимин
isiZulu: IHochiminh
íslenska: Ho Chi Minh-borg
къарачай-малкъар: Хошимин
ქართული: ხოშიმინი
kaszëbsczi: Ho Chi Minh City
қазақша: Хошимин
Kreyòl ayisyen: Hô-Chi-Minh-Vil
Кыргызча: Хошимин
latviešu: Hošimina
Lëtzebuergesch: Ho-Chi-Minh-Stad
лезги: Хошимин
lietuvių: Hošiminas
Limburgs: Ho Chi Minhstad
la .lojban.: Ho Chi Minh tcadu
македонски: Хо Ши Мин (град)
მარგალური: ხოშიმინი
مازِرونی: هوشی مینه سیتی
Baso Minangkabau: Kota Ho Chi Minh
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hồ Chí Minh Chê
мокшень: Хошимин
монгол: Хошимин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟိုချီမင်းစီးတီး
Dorerin Naoero: Ho Chi Minh City
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Ho Chi Minh (siti)
Nederlands: Ho Chi Minhstad
Nedersaksies: Ho Chi Minh-stad
нохчийн: Хошимин
Nordfriisk: Ho Chi Minh-stää
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ho Chi Minh City
norsk nynorsk: Ho Chi Minh-byen
олык марий: Хошимин
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସାଇଗନ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xoshimin
Papiamentu: Saigon
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ទីក្រុងព្រៃនគរ
Piemontèis: Ho Chi Minh City
Tok Pisin: Ho Chi Minh City
Plattdüütsch: Ho-Chi-Minh-Stadt
Qaraqalpaqsha: Ho Chi Minh City
qırımtatarca: Ho Şi Min
Ripoarisch: Ho Chi Minh-Stadt
русиньскый: Хошимин
русский: Хошимин
Gagana Samoa: Ho Chi Minh City
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ho Chi Minh City
sicilianu: Ho Chi Minh City
Simple English: Ho Chi Minh City
slovenčina: Hočiminovo Mesto
slovenščina: Hošiminh
Soomaaliga: Ho Chi Minh City
Sranantongo: Ho Chi Minh City
српски / srpski: Хо Ши Мин (град)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hồ Chí Minh (grad)
Basa Sunda: Kota Ho Chi Minh
Taqbaylit: Ho Chi Minh City
татарча/tatarça: Хошимин
тоҷикӣ: Хошимин
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ho Chi Minh City
удмурт: Хошимин
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Ho Chi Minh City
українська: Хошимін
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سايگون
Vahcuengh: Ho Chi Minh Si
vepsän kel’: Hošimin
West-Vlams: Ho Chi Minhstad
吴语: 胡志明市
粵語: 胡志明市
žemaitėška: Hošėmins
中文: 胡志明市