History

Herodotus (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"

Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1]

George Santayana

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.[5][6] Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[5][7][8][9]

Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history.[10][11] Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived.

Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.

Etymology

History by Frederick Dielman (1896)

The word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία[12] (historía), meaning "inquiry", "knowledge from inquiry", or "judge". It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[13] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar).

The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, inquiry, research, account, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, story, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin (possibly via Old Irish or Old Welsh) into Old English as stær ('history, narrative, story'), but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period.[14]

Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French (and Anglo-Norman), historia developed into forms such as istorie, estoire, and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life (beginning of the 12th century), chronicle, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general (1155), dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events (c. 1240), body of knowledge relative to human evolution, science (c. 1265), narrative of real or imaginary events, story (c. 1462)".[14]

It was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. It appears in the thirteenth-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late fourteenth century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s (VI.1383): "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire". In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events; the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs" arose in the mid-fifteenth century.[14]

With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late sixteenth century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).[15]

In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese (史 vs. 诌) now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and highly inflected, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story".

The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.[16]

Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word historiography.[13]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Тарихъ
Afrikaans: Geskiedenis
Alemannisch: Geschichte
አማርኛ: ታሪክ
Ænglisc: Stǣr
العربية: تاريخ
aragonés: Historia
armãneashti: Istorie
arpetan: Histouère
অসমীয়া: ইতিহাস
asturianu: Historia
Avañe'ẽ: Marandeko
Aymar aru: Nayra sarnaqawi
azərbaycanca: Tarix
تۆرکجه: تاریخ
bamanankan: Tariku
বাংলা: ইতিহাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Le̍k-sú
Basa Banyumasan: Sejarah
башҡортса: Тарих
беларуская: Гісторыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гісторыя
भोजपुरी: इतिहास
български: История
Boarisch: Gschicht
བོད་ཡིག: ལོ་རྒྱུས།
bosanski: Historija
brezhoneg: Istor
буряад: Түүхэ
català: Història
Чӑвашла: Истори
Cebuano: Kasaysayan
čeština: Historie
chiShona: Nhoroondo
corsu: Storia
Cymraeg: Hanes
dansk: Historie
Deitsch: Gschicht
Deutsch: Geschichte
eesti: Ajalugu
Ελληνικά: Ιστορία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Stòria
español: Historia
Esperanto: Historio
estremeñu: Estória
euskara: Historia
فارسی: تاریخ
Fiji Hindi: Dunia ke itihass
føroyskt: Søga
français: Histoire
Frysk: Skiednis
furlan: Storie
Gaeilge: Stair
Gaelg: Shennaghys
Gàidhlig: Eachdraidh
galego: Historia
ГӀалгӀай: Истори
贛語: 歷史
ગુજરાતી: ઇતિહાસ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Itihas
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Li̍t-sṳ́
한국어: 역사
Hausa: Tarihi
հայերեն: Պատմություն
हिन्दी: इतिहास
hrvatski: Povijest
Ilokano: Pakasaritaan
Bahasa Indonesia: Sejarah
interlingua: Historia
Interlingue: Historie
Ирон: Истори
isiXhosa: Imbali
íslenska: Saga
italiano: Storia
עברית: היסטוריה
Basa Jawa: Sajarah
kalaallisut: Oqaluttuarisaaneq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಇತಿಹಾಸ
Kapampangan: Amlat
къарачай-малкъар: Тарих
ქართული: ისტორია
қазақша: Тарих
kernowek: Istori
Kiswahili: Historia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Istwa
kurdî: Dîrok
Кыргызча: Тарых
Ladino: Istoria
лакку: Тарих
latgaļu: Viesture
Latina: Historia
latviešu: Vēsture
Lëtzebuergesch: Geschicht
лезги: Тарих
lietuvių: Istorija
Ligure: Stöia
Limburgs: Historie
Lingua Franca Nova: Istoria
Livvinkarjala: Histourii
la .lojban.: citri
lumbaart: Stòria
magyar: Történelem
македонски: Историја
Malagasy: Tantara
മലയാളം: ചരിത്രം
Malti: Storja
मराठी: इतिहास
მარგალური: ისტორია
مصرى: تاريخ
مازِرونی: بگذشتی
Bahasa Melayu: Sejarah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lĭk-sṳ̄
Mirandés: Stória
монгол: Түүх
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သမိုင်း
Nāhuatl: Huahpacayotl
Nederlands: Geschiedenis
Nedersaksies: Geschiedenis
नेपाली: इतिहास
नेपाल भाषा: इतिहास
日本語: 歴史
Napulitano: Storia
нохчийн: Истори
Nordfriisk: Histoori
Norfuk / Pitkern: Histrei
norsk: Historie
norsk nynorsk: Historie
Nouormand: Histouère
Novial: Historie
occitan: Istòria
олык марий: Эртыш
Oromoo: Seenaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tarix
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਇਤਿਹਾਸ
Pälzisch: Geschichte
پنجابی: تریخ
Papiamentu: Historia
پښتو: پېښليک
Patois: Ischri
Picard: Histoère
Tok Pisin: Histori
Plattdüütsch: Historie
polski: Historia
Ποντιακά: Ιστορία
português: História
română: Istorie
rumantsch: Istorgia
Runa Simi: Wiñay kawsay
русиньскый: Історія
русский: История
саха тыла: История
संस्कृतम्: इतिहासः
sardu: Istòria
Scots: History
Seeltersk: Geskichte
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ditiragalo
shqip: Historia
sicilianu: Storia
සිංහල: ඉතිහාසය
Simple English: History
سنڌي: تاريخ
slovenčina: Dejiny
slovenščina: Zgodovina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Їсторїꙗ
ślůnski: Gyszichta
Soomaaliga: Taariikh
کوردی: مێژوو
српски / srpski: Историја
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Historija
Basa Sunda: Sajarah
suomi: Historia
svenska: Historia
Tagalog: Kasaysayan
தமிழ்: வரலாறு
Taqbaylit: Amezruy
tarandíne: Storie
татарча/tatarça: Тарих
తెలుగు: చరిత్ర
tetun: Istória
тоҷикӣ: Таърих
Türkçe: Tarih
Türkmençe: Taryh
українська: Історія
اردو: تاریخ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: تارىخ
Vahcuengh: Lizsij
vèneto: Istoria
vepsän kel’: Istorii
Tiếng Việt: Lịch sử
Volapük: Jenav
Võro: Aolugu
walon: Istwere
文言:
Winaray: Kasaysayan
Wolof: Taariix
吴语: 歷史
ייִדיש: היסטאריע
Yorùbá: Ìtàn
粵語: 歷史
Zazaki: Tarix
žemaitėška: Istuorėjė
中文: 历史