Hippie

Young people near the Woodstock festival in August 1969

A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy)[1][2] is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district. The term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco with Herb Caen, who was a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle.

The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant "sophisticated; currently fashionable; fully up-to-date".[3][4][5] The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Hippies created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, and many used drugs such as marijuana, LSD, peyote and psilocybin mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness.

In 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, popularized hippie culture, leading to the Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, and the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast. Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people.[6] In later years, mobile "peace convoys" of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. "Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970.[7] Hippie and psychedelic culture influenced 1960s and early 1970s young culture in Iron Curtain countries in Eastern Europe (see Mánička).[8]

Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts. Since the 1960s, mainstream society has assimilated many aspects of hippie culture. The religious and cultural diversity the hippies espoused has gained widespread acceptance, and Eastern philosophy and spiritual concepts have reached a larger audience.

Etymology

Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown.[9] The word hip in the sense of "aware, in the know" is first attested in a 1902 cartoon by Tad Dorgan,[10] and first appeared in prose in a 1904 novel by George Vere Hobart[11] (1867–1926), Jim Hickey: A Story of the One-Night Stands, where an African-American character uses the slang phrase "Are you hip?"

The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944.[12] By the 1940s, the terms hip, hep and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep eventually came to denote an inferior status to hip.[13] In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square. In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.[14] According to Malcolm X's 1964 autobiography, the word hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who "acted more Negro than Negroes".[15] Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," seemingly in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now!

The word hippie was also used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons,[16] and You Can't Sit Down by The Dovells.[17] In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street.

Although the word hippies made other isolated appearances in print during the early 1960s, the first use of the term on the West Coast appeared in the article "A New Paradise for Beatniks" (in the San Francisco Examiner, issue of September 5, 1965) by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe (coffeehouse) (located at 1927 Hayes Street in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco), using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district.[18][19] New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.[citation needed]

Other Languages
العربية: هيبيز
asturianu: Hippie
azərbaycanca: Hippi
বাংলা: হিপি
беларуская: Хіпі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гіпі
български: Хипи
Boarisch: Hippie
brezhoneg: Hippie
čeština: Hippies
dansk: Hippie
Deutsch: Hippie
Ελληνικά: Χίπις
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Fiōi di fiōr
español: Hippie
Esperanto: Hipio
euskara: Hippie
فارسی: هیپی
français: Hippie
Gaeilge: Hipí
galego: Hippy
한국어: 히피
հայերեն: Հիպի
हिन्दी: हिप्पी
hrvatski: Hippie
Bahasa Indonesia: Hippie
interlingua: Hippie
íslenska: Hippi
italiano: Hippy
ქართული: ჰიპები
қазақша: Хиппи
Latina: Hippie
latviešu: Hipiji
lietuvių: Hipiai
magyar: Hippi
македонски: Хипи-движење
മലയാളം: ഹിപ്പിയിസം
Bahasa Melayu: Hippie
монгол: Хиппи
Nederlands: Hippiecultuur
Nedersaksies: Hippiekultuur
日本語: ヒッピー
norsk: Hippie
norsk nynorsk: Hippie
occitan: Hippie
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hippi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਿੱਪੀ
português: Hippie
română: Hippie
русский: Хиппи
Scots: Hippie
shqip: Hippie
Simple English: Hippie
slovenčina: Hippies
slovenščina: Hipi
کوردی: ھیپی
српски / srpski: Hipici
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hipici
suomi: Hippiliike
svenska: Hippie
தமிழ்: கிப்பி
తెలుగు: హిప్పీ
Türkçe: Hippi
українська: Хіпі
Tiếng Việt: Hippie
Zazaki: Hippi
中文: 嬉皮士