Hip hop music

Two hip hop DJs creating new music by mixing tracks from multiple record players. Pictured are DJ Hypnotize (left) and Baby Cee (right).
MC Hero performing rhythmic rhyming known as " rapping" in Huntsville, Alabama.

Hip hop music, also called hip-hop [3] [4] or rap music, [4] [5] [6] is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. [4] It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/ rapping, DJing/ scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti writing. [7] [8] [9] Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records (or synthesized beats and sounds), and rhythmic beatboxing. While often used to refer solely to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. [10] [11] The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, [4] [12] though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing, turntablism, scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks. [13] [14]

Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African-American youth residing in the Bronx. However hip-hop music did not get officially recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979, largely due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods. [15] At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". [16] Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became widely available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Whodini, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, and Spoonie Gee. The Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song " Rapper's Delight" is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. [17] The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. [18] Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres.

New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, and A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N.W.A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, and the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap. [19] In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, and Onyx. East Coast hip hop also had gangsta rap musicians such as the Notorious B.I.G. and Lil' Kim.

In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul (e.g.: Lauryn Hill, Erykah Badu) and nu metal (e.g.: Korn, Limp Bizkit). Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences also increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States also saw the success of regional styles such as crunk (e.g.: Lil Jon & the East Side Boys, the Ying Yang Twins), a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics. Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. [20] During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, and B.o.B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, and Kendrick Lamar all have been extremely popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop, also has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, and Kodak Black.

Origin of the term

The creation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. [21] However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. [22] It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching. [21] Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in " Rapper's Delight". [21] Universal Zulu Nation founder Afrika Bambaataa is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a derogatory term to describe the type of music. [23] The first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, [24] by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop. [25]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hip-hop
Alemannisch: Hip-Hop
العربية: هيب هوب
aragonés: Hip hop
asturianu: Hip hop
azərbaycanca: Hip-hop
Bân-lâm-gú: Hip hop
беларуская: Хіп-хоп
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гіп-гоп
български: Хип-хоп музика
Boarisch: Hip Hop
bosanski: Hip-hop
brezhoneg: Hip hop
català: Hip hop
čeština: Hip hop
Cymraeg: Hip hop
Deutsch: Hip-Hop
eesti: Hiphop
español: Hip hop
Esperanto: Hiphopo
euskara: Hip hop
føroyskt: Hip hop
français: Hip-hop
Frysk: Hiphop
Gaeilge: Rapcheol
Gàidhlig: Hip-hop
galego: Hip hop
贛語: 嘻哈音樂
한국어: 힙합 음악
Հայերեն: Հիփ հոփ
hrvatski: Hip-hop glazba
Ido: Hip hop
Bahasa Indonesia: Musik hip hop
Ирон: Хип-хоп
íslenska: Hipphopp
қазақша: Хип-хоп
latviešu: Hiphops
Lëtzebuergesch: Hip-Hop
lietuvių: Hiphopas
magyar: Hiphop
македонски: Хип хоп музика
മലയാളം: റാപ്പ്
მარგალური: ჰიპ-ჰოპი
Bahasa Melayu: Muzik hip hop
Mirandés: Hip hop
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟစ်ဟော့ ဂီတ
Nederlands: Hiphop
Nedersaksies: Hiphop
occitan: Hip-hop
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hip hop
Papiamentu: Hip hop
Plattdüütsch: Hip-Hop (Musik)
português: Hip hop
română: Muzică hip-hop
русиньскый: Гіп-гоп
shqip: Hip hop
Simple English: Hip hop
slovenčina: Hip-hop (hudba)
slovenščina: Hip-hop
српски / srpski: Хип хоп
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hip hop
suomi: Rap
svenska: Hiphopmusik
தமிழ்: ஹிப் ஹாப்
Türkçe: Hip hop müzik
Tiếng Việt: Hip hop
Wolof: Hip-hop
ייִדיש: היפ האפ
Yorùbá: Orin hip hop
粵語: Hip hop
中文: 嘻哈音樂