Hindu Kush

Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush range
Highest point
PeakTirich Mir
Elevation7,708 m (25,289 ft)
Coordinates36°14′45″N 71°50′38″E / 36°14′45″N 71°50′38″E / 36.24583; 71.84389
Approximate Hindu Kush range with Dorah Pass.jpg
Topography of the Hindu Kush range[1]
RegionCentral Asia-South
Parent rangeHimalayas
Hindu Kush and its extending mountain ranges to the west.

The Hindu Kush (ʃ/), also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Ancient Greek: Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Ancient Greek: Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as هندوکش‬, is an 800-kilometre-long (500 mi) mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,[2][3] from central Afghanistan to northern Pakistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region (HKH).[4][5][6] It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south.

The Hindu Kush range has numerous high snow-capped peaks, with the highest point in the Hindu Kush being Tirich Mir or Terichmir at 7,708 metres (25,289 ft) in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the north, near its northeastern end, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan near their border.[2] The eastern end of the Hindu Kush in the north merges with the Karakoram Range.[7][8] Towards its southern end, it connects with the Spin Ghar Range near the Kabul River.[9][10]

According to Gherardo Gnoli, "if we compare the first chapter of the Vidēvdād with the passages of geographical interest that we come across mainly in the great [Zoroastrian] yašts, we can conclude that the geographical area of Avesta was dominated by the Hindu Kush range at the center, the western boundary being marked by the districts of Margiana, Areia, and Drangiana, the eastern one by the Indo-Iranian frontier regions such as Gandhāra, Bunēr, the land of the Seven Rivers."[11] The Hindu Kush range region was later a historically significant centre of Buddhism with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas.[12][13] The range and communities settled in it hosted ancient monasteries, important trade networks, and travelers between Central Asia and South Asia.[14][15] The Hindu Kush range has also been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent,[16][17] and continues to be important during modern era warfare in Afghanistan.[18][19]

Geology and formation

Geologically, the range is rooted in the formation of a subcontinent from a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period.[20] [21] The Indian subcontinent, Australia and islands of the Indian Ocean rifted further, drifting northeastwards, with the Indian subcontinent colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Palaeocene.[20] This collision created the Himalayas, including the Hindu Kush.[22]

The Hindu Kush range remains geologically active and is still rising.[23] It is prone to earthquakes.[24][25]

Other Languages
العربية: هندوكوش
asturianu: Hindú Kush
azərbaycanca: Hinduquş dağları
башҡортса: Һиндукуш
беларуская: Гіндукуш
български: Хиндукуш
brezhoneg: Hindu Kush
català: Hindu Kush
Cebuano: Hindū Kush
čeština: Hindúkuš
Cymraeg: Hindu Kush
dansk: Hindu Kush
Deutsch: Hindukusch
eesti: Hindukuš
Ελληνικά: Χίντου Κους
español: Hindú Kush
Esperanto: Hindukuŝo
euskara: Hindu Kush
فارسی: هندوکش
français: Hindou Kouch
galego: Hindu Kush
հայերեն: Հինդուկուշ
हिन्दी: हिन्दु कुश
hrvatski: Hindukuš
Bahasa Indonesia: Hindu Kush
italiano: Hindu Kush
עברית: הינדו-כוש
Basa Jawa: Hindu Kush
ქართული: ჰინდუქუში
Кыргызча: Гиндукуш
Latina: Paropamisus
latviešu: Hindukušs
lietuvių: Hindukušas
magyar: Hindukus
македонски: Хиндукуш
മലയാളം: ഹിന്ദുകുഷ്
Nederlands: Hindoekoesj
norsk: Hindukush
norsk nynorsk: Hindukush
occitan: Hindu Kush
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hindukush
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਿੰਦੂ ਕੁਸ਼
پنجابی: ھندوکش
پښتو: هندوکش
polski: Hindukusz
português: Indocuche
русский: Гиндукуш
Scots: Hindu Kush
Simple English: Hindu Kush
slovenčina: Hindúkuš
slovenščina: Hindukuš
српски / srpski: Хиндукуш
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hindukuš
suomi: Hindukuš
svenska: Hindukush
Tagalog: Hindu Kush
татарча/tatarça: Һиндукуш
українська: Гіндукуш
Tiếng Việt: Hindu Kush
ייִדיש: הינדו קוש