Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh
State
Himachal Pradesh seal.svg
Seal
Himachal Pradesh
Location in India
State map
State map
Coordinates ( Shimla): 31°6′12″N 77°10′20″E / 31°6′12″N 77°10′20″E / 31.10333; 77.17222
Country   India
Statehood 25 January 1971
Capitals Shimla
Dharamshala (Second Capital in Winter)
Districts 12
Government
 •  Governor Acharya Dev Vrat [1]
 •  Chief Justice Justice Sanjay Karol(Acting)
 •  Chief Minister Virbhadra Singh [2] ( INC)
 •  Legislature Unicameral [3] ( 68 seats)
 •  Parliamentary constituency 4
Area
 • Total 55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi)
Area rank 18th [4]
Population (2011) [5]
 • Total 6,864,602
 • Rank 21st
 • Density 123/km2 (320/sq mi)
Language
 • Official Hindi [6]
 • Additional official English [6]
Time zone IST ( UTC+05:30)
HDI Increase 0.6701 (medium)
HDI rank 3rd (2015)
Literacy 82.80% [5]
Website www.himachal.nic.in
It was elevated to the status of state by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970

Himachal Pradesh ( [ɦɪmaːtʃəl prəd̪eːʃ] ( About this sound  listen); literally "Abode of Snow") is a state of India located in North India. It is bordered by Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab and Chandigarh on the west, Haryana on the southwest, Uttarakhand on the southeast, and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east. At its southernmost point, it also touches the state of Uttar Pradesh. The name was coined from the SanskritHim means 'snow' and achal means 'land' or 'abode'—by Acharya Diwakar Datt Sharma, one of the state's eminent Sanskrit scholars. [7]

Himachal Pradesh is known for its natural environment, hill stations, and temples. [8] Himachal Pradesh had one of the highest per-capita incomes among Indian states and union territories for the year 2014-15. [9] Many perennial rivers flow in the state. Numerous plants produce surplus hydroelectricity that is sold to other states, such as Delhi, Punjab, and Rajasthan. [10] Tourism and agriculture are additional important parts of the state's economy. [10]

The state has several valleys. [11] About 90% of the population lives in rural areas. [12] Practically all houses have a toilet and 100% hygiene has been achieved in the state. [13] The villages have good connectivity with roads, public health centres, and high-speed broadband.

Shimla district has the largest urban population in the state at 25%. Notable government actions include a ban on polyethylene bags [14] and tobacco products. A 2017 survey by an international organization ranked Himachal Pradesh India's least corrupt state.

History

The history of the area that now constitutes Himachal Pradesh dates to the Indus valley civilisation that flourished between 2250 and 1750 BCE. [15] Tribes such as the Koili, Hali, Dagi, Dhaugri, Dasa, Khasa, Kinnar, and Kirat inhabited the region from the prehistoric era. [16]

During the Vedic period, several small republics known as Janapada existed which were later conquered by the Gupta Empire. After a brief period of supremacy by King Harshavardhana, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some Rajput principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate a number of times. [15] Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 10th century. Timur and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles. [15] Several hill states acknowledged Mughal suzerainty and paid regular tribute to the Mughals. [17]

Sansar Chand (c. 1765–1823)
Siege of Kangda led by Nepali commander Bada Kaji Amar Singh Thapa

The Kingdom of Gorkha conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal in 1768. [15] They consolidated their military power and began to expand their territory. [15] Gradually, the Kingdom of Nepal annexed Sirmour and Shimla. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh in 1809. After the defeat, they began to expand towards the south of the state. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846, [15] during the First Anglo-Sikh War.

They came into direct conflict with the British along the tarai belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj. [15] The British gradually emerged as the paramount power in the region. [15] In the revolt of 1857, or first Indian war of independence, arising from a number of grievances against the British, [15] the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country. [15] They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive. [15] Some, including the rulers of Chamba, Bilaspur, Bhagal and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt.

Rock Cut Temple, Masroor

The British territories came under the British Crown after Queen Victoria's proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule. [15] During World War I, virtually all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials. Among these were the states of Kangra, Jaswan, Datarpur, Guler, Rajgarh, Nurpur, Chamba, Suket, Mandi, and Bilaspur. [15]

After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh. was organized on 15 April 1948 as a result of integration of 28 petty princely states (including feudal princes and zaildars) in the promontories of the western Himalaya. These were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947 (later renamed as the Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1947 vide A.O. of 1950). The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 April 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act, 1954.

Himachal became a part C state on 26 January 1951 with the implementation of the Constitution of India and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed. The Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory on 1 November 1956. [15] Some areas of Punjab State—namely Simla, Kangra, Kulu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara, Amb and Una kanungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District—were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on enactment by Parliament of Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. On 18 December 1970, the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament, and the new state came into being on 25 January 1971. Himachal became the 18th state of the Indian Union with Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar as its first chief minister. [15]

Other Languages
العربية: هيماجل برديش
azərbaycanca: Himaçal Pradeş
Bân-lâm-gú: Himachal Pradesh
беларуская: Хімачал-Прадэш
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гімачал-Прадэш
български: Химачал Прадеш
brezhoneg: Himachal Pradesh
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހިމާޗަލް ޕްރަދޭޝް
Fiji Hindi: Himachal Pradesh
français: Himachal Pradesh
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Himachal Pradex
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Himachal Pradesh
hornjoserbsce: Himačal Pradeš
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: হিমাচল প্রদেশ
Bahasa Indonesia: Himachal Pradesh
íslenska: Himachal Pradesh
Kapampangan: Himachal Pradesh
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ہماچل پردیش
Kiswahili: Himachal Pradesh
لۊری شومالی: هیماچال پئرادئش
македонски: Химачал Прадеш
მარგალური: ჰიმაჩალ-პრადეში
Bahasa Melayu: Himachal Pradesh
Nederlands: Himachal Pradesh
नेपाल भाषा: हिमाचल प्रदेश
Napulitano: Himachal Pradesh
norsk nynorsk: Himachal Pradesh
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ximachalpradesh
پنجابی: ہماچل پردیش
português: Himachal Pradesh
Qaraqalpaqsha: Himachal Pradesh
Simple English: Himachal Pradesh
slovenčina: Himáčalpradéš
slovenščina: Himačal Pradeš
српски / srpski: Химачал Прадеш
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Himachal Pradesh
Türkmençe: Himachal Pradesh
українська: Гімачал-Прадеш
Tiếng Việt: Himachal Pradesh