Hidalgo (nobility)

A sixteenth-century French depiction of an hidalgo in the Spanish colonies
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Hidalgos

An hidalgo (/, Spanish: [iˈðalɣo]) or a fidalgo (Portuguese: [fiˈðaɫɣu], Galician: [fiˈðalɣʊ]) is a member of the Spanish or Portuguese nobility; the feminine forms of the terms are hidalga, in Spanish, and fidalga, in Portuguese and Galician. In popular usage, the term hidalgo identifies a nobleman without a hereditary title. In practice, hidalgos were exempted from paying taxes, yet owned little real property.

Etymology

Since the twelfth century, the phrase fijo d'algo (lit. son of something, assuming that algo is not also a contraction) and its contraction, fidalgo, were used in the Kingdom of Castile and in the Kingdom of Portugal to identify a type of nobility. In Portugal, the cognate remained fidalgo, which identified nobles of a similar status to a hidalgo in Spain. In the Kingdom of Aragón, the infanzón was the noble counterpart of the Castilian hidalgo. The pronunciation changes in Spanish occurred during the late Middle Ages, the letter-F sounding was lost, and replaced with the letter-H spelling and pronunciation of hidalgo.[1] (see History of the Spanish language)

The origin of the word "hidalgo" is disputed. The word may be a contraction of hijo de la Godo, or son of the Goth.[2][3][dubious ] When the Goths invaded the Iberian Peninsula, they supplanted the previous social structure and became the ruling class. Thus to be the son of a Goth would indicate one was upper class gentility.

In time, the term included the lower-ranking gentry, the untitled, lower stratum of the nobility who were exempted from taxation. The Siete Partidas (Leyes de Partidas), suggests that the word hidalgo derives from itálico ("italic"), a man with full Roman citizenship.[citation needed]

In the previous Visigoth monarchies, the condition of the hidalgo was that of a freeman without land wealth, but with the nobleman's rights to wear arms and to be exempt from taxation, in compensation for military service; the military obligation and the social condition remained in force by the Fuero Juzgo law.[citation needed]

Other Languages
العربية: هيدالغو
български: Идалго (титла)
Ελληνικά: Ιδαλγός
español: Hidalgo
Esperanto: Hidalgo
euskara: Kapare
galego: Fidalguía
한국어: 이달고
հայերեն: Իդալգո
hrvatski: Idalgo
Latina: Fidalgus
lietuvių: Idalgas
Nederlands: Hidalgo (adel)
русский: Идальго
slovenščina: Hidalgo (plemič)
српски / srpski: Идалго
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hidalgo (plemstvo)
українська: Ідальго