Hermes

Hermes
Messenger of the gods, god of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, border crossings, guide to the Underworld
Hermes Ingenui Pio-Clementino Inv544.jpg
Hermes Ingenui (Vatican Museums), Roman copy of the 2nd century BC after a Greek original of the 5th century BC. Hermes wears kerykeion, kithara, petasus (round hat), traveler's cloak and winged temples.
AbodeMount Olympus
SymbolTalaria, caduceus, tortoise, lyre, rooster, Petasos (Winged helmet)
Personal information
ConsortMerope, Aphrodite, Dryope, Peitho, Hecate
ChildrenPan, Hermaphroditus, Tyche, Abderus, Autolycus, Eudorus, Angelia, Myrtilus
ParentsZeus and Maia
SiblingsAeacus, Angelos, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Dionysus, Eileithyia, Enyo, Eris, Ersa, Hebe, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Heracles, Minos, Pandia, Persephone, Perseus, Rhadamanthus, the Graces, the Horae, the Litae, the Muses, the Moirai
Roman equivalentMercury

Hermes (z/; Greek: Ἑρμῆς) is the god of trade, heraldry, merchants, commerce, roads, sports, travelers, and athletes in Ancient Greek religion and mythology; the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, he was the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).

Hermes was the emissary and messenger of the gods.[1] Hermes was also "the divine trickster"[2] and "the god of boundaries and the transgression of boundaries, ... the patron of herdsmen, thieves, graves, and heralds."[3] He is described as moving freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine, and was the conductor of souls into the afterlife.[4] He was also viewed as the protector and patron of roads and travelers.[5]

In some myths, he is a trickster and outwits other gods for his own satisfaction or for the sake of humankind. His attributes and symbols include the herma, the rooster, the tortoise, satchel or pouch, winged sandals, and winged cap. His main symbol is the Greek kerykeion or Latin caduceus, which appears in a form of two snakes wrapped around a winged staff with carvings of the other gods.[6]

In the Roman adaptation of the Greek pantheon (see interpretatio romana), Hermes is identified with the Roman god Mercury,[7] who, though inherited from the Etruscans, developed many similar characteristics such as being the patron of commerce.

Etymology and origins

The earliest form of the name Hermes is the Mycenaean Greek *hermāhās,[8] written 𐀁𐀔𐁀 e-ma-a2 (e-ma-ha) in the Linear B syllabic script.[9] Most scholars derive "Hermes" from Greek ἕρμα herma,[10] "prop,[11] heap of stones, boundary marker", from which the word hermai ("boundary markers dedicated to Hermes as a god of travelers") also derives.[12] The etymology of ἕρμα itself is unknown, but it is probably not a Proto-Indo-European word.[8] However, the stone etymology is also linked to Indo-European *ser- (“to bind, put together”). Scholarly speculation that "Hermes" derives from a more primitive form meaning "one cairn" is disputed.[13] In Greek, a lucky find is a ἕρμαιον hermaion.

According to one theory that has received considerable scholarly acceptance, Hermes himself originated as a form of the god Pan, who has been identified as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European pastoral god *Péh2usōn,[14][15] in his aspect as the god of boundary markers. Later, the epithet supplanted the original name itself and Hermes took over the roles as god of messengers, travelers, and boundaries, which had originally belonged to Pan, while Pan himself continued to be venerated by his original name in his more rustic aspect as the god of the wild in the relatively isolated mountainous region of Arcadia. In later myths, after the cult of Pan was reintroduced to Attica, Pan was said to be Hermes's son.[15][16]

Other origins have also been proposed. R. S. P. Beekes rejects the connection with herma and suggests a Pre-Greek origin.[8] Other scholars have suggested that Hermes may be a cognate of the Vedic Sarama.[17][18]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hermes
Alemannisch: Hermes
العربية: هيرميز
aragonés: Hermes
asturianu: Hermes
azərbaycanca: Hermes
বাংলা: হার্মিস
Bân-lâm-gú: Hermes
башҡортса: Гермес
беларуская: Гермес
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гермэс
български: Хермес
Boarisch: Hermes
bosanski: Hermes
brezhoneg: Hermes
català: Hermes
čeština: Hermés
dansk: Hermes
Deutsch: Hermes
eesti: Hermes
español: Hermes
Esperanto: Hermeso
euskara: Hermes
فارسی: هرمس
français: Hermès
Gaeilge: Heirméas
galego: Hermes
한국어: 헤르메스
հայերեն: Հերմես
हिन्दी: हरमीस
hrvatski: Hermes
Bahasa Indonesia: Hermes
íslenska: Hermes
italiano: Ermes
עברית: הרמס
Basa Jawa: Hermes
ქართული: ჰერმესი
қазақша: Гермес
Kiswahili: Herme
Latina: Hermes
latviešu: Hermejs
Lëtzebuergesch: Hermes (Mythologie)
lietuvių: Hermis
magyar: Hermész
македонски: Хермес
മലയാളം: ഹെർമീസ്
मराठी: हर्मीस
مصرى: هيرميس
Bahasa Melayu: Hermes
日本語: ヘルメース
norsk: Hermes
norsk nynorsk: Hermes
occitan: Ermès
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਰਮੀ
Plattdüütsch: Hermes (Mythologie)
polski: Hermes
português: Hermes
română: Hermes
русский: Гермес
Scots: Hermes
shqip: Hermesi
Simple English: Hermes
slovenčina: Hermes (boh)
slovenščina: Hermes
српски / srpski: Хермес
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hermes
suomi: Hermes
svenska: Hermes
Tagalog: Hermes
தமிழ்: எர்மெசு
татарча/tatarça: Hermes
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎭᎹᏏ
Türkçe: Hermes
українська: Гермес
vepsän kel’: Germes
Tiếng Việt: Hermes
West-Vlams: Hermes
Winaray: Hermes
粵語: 赫密士
Zazaki: Hermes
中文: 赫耳墨斯