Help:IPA/Italian

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents pronunciations of Standard Italian in Wikipedia articles.

See Italian phonology for a more thorough overview of the sounds of Italian. There is also an Italian pronunciation guide at Wiktionary.

To learn more about the correspondence between spelling and sounds, see Italian orthography.

Consonants[1]
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
bbanca, cibobike
ddove, idradone
dzzaino, azalea, mezzo[2][3]dads
gelo, giù, magia, judo, gadget[4]job
ffatto, cifra, phonfast
ɡgatto, agro, glifo, ghettogas
kcosa, acuto, finché, quei, kiwi[4]scar
llato, telaladder
ʎfigli, glielo, maglia[3]billion
mmano, amare, input, anfibio[5]mother
nnano, punto, pensare[5]nest
ŋunghia, anche, dunque[5]sing
ɲgnocco, ogni[3]canyon
pprimo, ampio, apertura[4]spin
rRoma, quattro, morte[6]trilled r
ssano, scusa, presentire, pastosorry
ʃscena, scià, pesci, flash, chic[3][4]shoe
ttranne, mito, altro, thai[4]star
tszio, sozzo, marzo[2][3]cats
certo, ciao, farmacia, chip[4]check
vvado, povero, wattvent
zsbirro, presentare, asmazipper
Non-native consonants
hhobby, hertz[4][7]house
θThatcher, Pérez[4][8]thing
xjota, Bach, khamsin[9]loch (Scottish English)
ʒFuji, abat-jour, garage, casual[4]vision
Vowels[10]
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
aalto, sarà, must, clownfather
evero, perché, liaisonhey
ɛelica, cioè, cash, play, spreadbed
iviso, sì, zia, feed, team, sexyski
oombra, otto, show, coachtow (American English), lord (RP)
ɔotto, sarò, Seanoff
uusi, ragù, tuo, look, tourrule
Non-native vowels
øviveur, goethiano, Churchill[11]murder (RP)
yparure, brûlé, Führer[12]future (Scottish English)
 
Semivowels
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
jieri, saio, più, Jesi, yacht, newsyou
wuova, guado, qui, week-endwine
 
Suprasegmentals
IPAExamplesExplanation
ˈCennini [tʃenˈniːni]primary stress
ˌaltamente [ˌaltaˈmente]secondary stress[13]
.continuo [konˈtiːnu.o]syllable break
ːprimo [ˈpriːmo]long vowel[14]

Notes

  1. ^ If consonants are doubled after a vowel, they are geminated: all consonants may be geminated except for /z/. In IPA, gemination is represented by doubling the consonant (fatto [ˈfatto], mezzo [ˈmɛddzo]) or by using the length marker ⟨ː⟩. There is also the sandhi of syntactic gemination: va via [ˌva vˈviːa]).
  2. ^ a b ⟨z⟩ represents both /ts/ and /dz/. The article on Italian orthography explains how they are used.
  3. ^ a b c d e /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i In Tuscany [h], [ɸ], [θ], [ʃ] and [ʒ] are the common allophones of vowel-following single /k/, /p/, /t/, /tʃ/ and /dʒ/.
  5. ^ a b c Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/~/nk/ is a velar [ŋ], and the one in /nf/~/nv/ is the labiodental [ɱ] (but for simplicity, ⟨m⟩ is used here). A nasal before /p/, /b/ and /m/ is always the labial [m].
  6. ^ Non-geminate /r/ may be realized as a tap [ɾ].
  7. ^ /h/ is usually dropped.
  8. ^ /θ/ is usually pronounced as [t] in English loanwords, and [dz], [ts] (if spelled ⟨z⟩) or [s] (if spelled ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩) in Spanish ones.
  9. ^ In Spanish loanwords, /x/ is usually pronounced as [h], [k] or dropped. In German, Arabic and Russian ones, it is usually pronounced [k].
  10. ^ Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. Open-mid vowels /ɛ, ɔ/ can appear only if the syllable is stressed (coperto [koˈpɛrto], quota [ˈkwɔːta]), close-mid vowels /e, o/ are found elsewhere (Boccaccio [bokˈkattʃo], amore [aˈmoːre]). Close and open vowels /i, u, a/ are unchanged in unstressed syllables, but word-final unstressed /i/ may become approximant [j] before vowels, which is known as synalepha (pari età [ˌparj eˈta]).
  11. ^ Open-mid [œ] or close-mid [ø] if it is stressed but usually [ø] if it is unstressed. May be replaced by [ɛ] (stressed) or [e] (stressed or unstressed).
  12. ^ /y/ is often pronounced as [u] or [ju].
  13. ^ Since Italian has no distinction between heavier or lighter vowels (like the English o in conclusion vs o in nomination), a defined secondary stress, even in long words, is extremely rare.
  14. ^ Stressed vowels are long in non-final open syllables: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].