The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents pronunciations of Standard Italian in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-it}}, {{IPAc-it}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Italian phonology and Italian orthography for a more thorough look at the sounds of Italian.

IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
bbanca, ciboabout
ddove, idratoday
dzzaino, azalea, mezzo[2][3]dads
gelo, giù, magia, judo, gadget[4]job
ffatto, cifra, phonfast
ɡgatto, agro, ghetto, glicosio[5]again
jieri, saio, più, Jesi, yacht, newsyes
kcosa, acuto, finché, quei, kiwi, koala[4]scar
llato, tela, glicosio[5]ladder
ʎfigli, glielo, maglia[3]billion
mmano, amare, input[6]mother
ɱanfibio, invece[6]comfort
nnano, punto, pensare[6]nest
ŋunghia, anche, dunque[6]sing
ɲgnocco, ogni[3]canyon
pprimo, ampio, apertura[4]spin
rRoma, quattro, morte[7]trilled r
ssano, scusa, presentire, pastosorry
ʃscena, scià, pesci, flash, chic[3][4]shoe
ttranne, mito, altro, thai[4]star
tszio, sozzo, marzo[2][3]cats
certo, ciao, farmacia, chip[4]check
vvado, povero, wattvent
wuova, guado, qui, week-endwine
zsbirro, presentare, asmaamazon
Non-native consonants
hhobby, hertz[4][8]house
θThatcher, Pérez[4][9]thing
xjota, Bach, khamsin[10]loch (Scottish English)
ʒFuji, garage, casual[4]vision
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
aalto, sarà, mustfast (Scottish English)
evero, perché, liaisonfade
ɛelica, cioè, spreadbed
iviso, sì, zia, feed, team, sexyski
oombra, otto, show, coachstory
ɔotto, sarò, Seanoff
uusi, ragù, tuo, tourrule
Non-native vowels
øviveur, goethiano, Churchill[12]murder (RP)
yparure, brûlé, Führer[13]future (Scottish English)
ˈCennini [tʃenˈniːni]primary stress
ˌaltamente [ˌaltaˈmente]secondary stress[14]
.continuo [konˈtiːnu.o]syllable break
ːprimo [ˈpriːmo]long vowel[15]


  1. ^ If consonants are doubled after a vowel, they are geminated: all consonants may be geminated except for /z/. In IPA, gemination is represented by doubling the consonant (fatto [ˈfatto], mezzo [ˈmɛddzo]) or by using the length marker ⟨ː⟩. There is also the sandhi of syntactic gemination: va via [ˌva vˈviːa]).
  2. ^ a b ⟨z⟩ represents both /ts/ and /dz/. The article on Italian orthography explains how they are used.
  3. ^ a b c d e /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i In Tuscany [h], [ɸ], [θ], [ʃ] and [ʒ] are the common allophones of vowel-following single /k/, /p/, /t/, /tʃ/ and /dʒ/
  5. ^ a b ⟨gli⟩ represents /ʎ/ or /ʎi/, except in roots of Greek origin, when preceded by another consonant, and in a few other words, where it represents /ɡli/
  6. ^ a b c d Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the ⟨n⟩ in /nɡ/ and /nk/ is a velar [ŋ], and the one in /nf/ and /nv/ is the labiodental [ɱ]. A nasal before /p/, /b/ and /m/ is always the labial [m].
  7. ^ Non-geminate /r/ is generally realised with a single strike, as a monovibrant trill or tap [ɾ], particularly in unstressed syllables.
  8. ^ /h/ is usually dropped.
  9. ^ /θ/ is usually pronounced as [t] in English loanwords, and [dz], [ts] (if spelled ⟨z⟩) or [s] (if spelled ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩) in Spanish ones.
  10. ^ In Spanish loanwords, /x/ is usually pronounced as [h], [k] or dropped. In German, Arabic and Russian ones, it is usually pronounced [k].
  11. ^ Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. Open-mid vowels /ɛ, ɔ/ can appear only if the syllable is stressed (coperto [koˈpɛrto], quota [ˈkwɔːta]), close-mid vowels /e, o/ are found elsewhere (Boccaccio [bokˈkattʃo], amore [aˈmoːre]). Close and open vowels /i, u, a/ are unchanged in unstressed syllables, but word-final unstressed /i/ may become approximant [j] before vowels, which is known as synalepha (pari età [ˌparj eˈta]).
  12. ^ Open-mid [œ] or close-mid [ø] if it is stressed but usually [ø] if it is unstressed. May be replaced by [ɛ] (stressed) or [e] (stressed or unstressed).
  13. ^ /y/ is often pronounced as [u] or [ju].
  14. ^ Since Italian has no distinction between heavier or lighter vowels (like the English o in conclusion vs o in nomination), a defined secondary stress, even in long words, is extremely rare.
  15. ^ Stressed vowels are long in non-final open syllables: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].

Further reading

  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004). "Italian" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 34 (1): 117–121. 10.1017/S0025100304001628.

External links

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