Help:IPA/Greek

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the Ancient Greek (AG) and Modern Greek (MG) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The Ancient Greek pronunciation shown here is a reconstruction of the Attic dialect in the 5th century BC. Do not use the same symbols for other Ancient Greek dialects, such as Doric, Aeolic, or Koine Greek, as they may be inaccurate.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at their sounds.

Consonants[1]
IPAAGMGExampleEnglish approximation
cκκιόλας[2]skew
kκ, ξκατά, ξένος[3][2]scar
χχάρτης[2]car
xχsimilar to hat,
Scottish English: loch
çχέρι[2]hue
jιεη[4]toy yacht
ʝγγη[2]yes
ɣγάλα[2]similar to woman,
but with spread lips
ɡγagain
γκ
γγ
εγκώμιο[2][5]
ɟάγγελος[2][5]argue
pπ, ψπέτρα, ψυχή[3]spy
φφωςpaint
fφfour
vβ, υ[6]βέλοςvet
bβabout
μπμπαμπάς[5]
wυπαύω[4]well
tττάφοςstay
θθεόςtake
θθthought
ðδδούληthe
dδtoday
ντεντάξει[5]
h῾◌ρως[7]hat
lλλόγοςlook
ʎλελιάmillion
mμμοίραmole
nνναιno
ɲννιότηonion
ŋγάγχοςsing
rρώραtrilled r like in Spanish
ίζαsimilar to train
sσ, ς
ξ, ψ
σοφός, ψυχή, ξένος[3]sow, usually retracted
zζ, σκόσμος, ζωή[3]zoo, usually retracted
t͡sτστσάιcats, usually retracted
d͡zζτζτζάκιpads, retracted in most cases
Dialectal segments
IPAEnglish approximation
ʃshame
ɕ
ʒvision
ʑ
t͡ʃcheck
t͡ɕ
d͡ʒjam
d͡ʑ
æcat
IPAExplanation
◌ːmarks a consonant produced twice as long[1]
Vowels
Monophthongs
IPAAGMGExampleEnglish approximation
aαάρτοςfather, but shorter
χώρfather
ɛːηψυχή[8]met, but longer
eε[9]θεόςmet
ειεἰμί[8]bay
iι[8]ίδιοςlike neat
πίνω[8]like need
ωἐγώ[9]boil
oωsimilar to note (American English)
ο[9]οδός
ουμουsimilar to mood
uουpool
yφύσις[8]few
ψυχή[8]fume
Diphthongs[4]
IPAAGMGExampleEnglish approximation
ai̯αιαἴτιος, πάλαι, ψῡχαί[9]tie
αϊ[10]
au̯αυαὐτός[6]how
αου
ei̯ειεἴη[8]hey
έι[11]
eu̯ευεὖ[6]Italian and Spanish neutro
εου
oi̯οιοἶδα, λόγοι[8]toy
όι[12]
yi̯υιυἱός[8]
aːi̯δω, χώρ[13]
ɛːi̯ς, ψυχ[8][13]
ɔːi̯δή, λόγ[13]
Suprasegmentals
IPA[14]AGMGExampleExplanation
◌́´γάλα ála]high tone
◌̌´ἐγώ [eɡɔ̌ː]rising tone
`μν [men]mid tone
◌̂γ ɛ̂ː]falling tone
ˈ΄άλλος [ˈa.los]stress
.syllable break

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ancient Greek had geminate consonants, pronounced longer than single ones, which may be transcribed by a double consonant letter ⟨ss⟩ or the length symbol ⟨⟩. Modern Standard Greek does not have geminate consonants, but some nonstandard dialects do.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h In Modern Greek, ⟨κ; γκ, γγ; γ; χ⟩ are pronounced as palatal [c, ɟ, ʝ, ç] before the front vowels [e i], and velar [k, g, ɣ, x] in other cases.
  3. ^ a b c d ζ⟩ represented the cluster [zd] in Classical Attic, but it represents [z] in Modern Greek. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, ⟨σ⟩ is pronounced as voiced [z] before a voiced consonant, and ⟨ξ, ψ⟩ represent [ks ps].
  4. ^ a b c In Ancient Greek, a diphthong before a vowel was realised as a vowel and a double semivowel sequence: [jj, ww].
  5. ^ a b c d In Modern Greek, ⟨μπ, ντ, γκ, γγ⟩ are pronounced as prenasalised voiced stops [mb, nd, ɲɟ, ŋɡ] or voiced stops without nasalisation [b, d, ɟ, ɡ].
  6. ^ a b c In Modern Greek, ⟨υ⟩, in ⟨αυ ευ ηυ⟩, is pronounced as [f] before a voiceless consonant and [v] otherwise. In Ancient Greek, ⟨αυ ευ ηυ⟩ were diphthongs [au̯ eu̯ ɛːu̯].
  7. ^ The rough breathing ⟨⟩ represented [h] before a vowel, and the smooth breathing ⟨᾿⟩ represented the absence of [h].
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j In Modern Greek, ⟨η, ῃ, ει, ι, οι, υ, υι⟩ all represent [i], but they were pronounced [ɛː, ɛːi̯, eː, ei̯, i(ː) oi̯, y(ː), yi̯] in Ancient Greek. The large number of vowel mergers into [i] is called iotacism.
  9. ^ a b c d In Modern Greek, ⟨ε, αι⟩ represent [e], and ⟨ο, ω⟩ represent [o]. In Ancient Greek, ⟨ε, ο⟩ represented [e, o], ⟨ω⟩ represented [ɔː] and ⟨αι⟩ represented the diphthong [ai̯].
  10. ^ Also ⟨άι⟩ and sometimes ⟨άϊ⟩.
  11. ^ Also ⟨εϊ⟩ and sometimes ⟨έϊ⟩.
  12. ^ Also ⟨οϊ⟩ and sometimes ⟨όϊ⟩.
  13. ^ a b c In early Ancient Greek, ⟨ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ⟩ were diphthongs, but the second element [i̯] was lost soon after the Classical period, and they merged with ⟨ᾱ, η, ω⟩.
  14. ^ The symbols used here for Ancient Greek pitch accent must be added as combining characters in some cases. Place the numeric character reference after the letter that on which the accent is to be put, press "Show preview" and copy the resulting accented character. ́ is the numeric character reference for combining acute tone mark (high tone), ̌ for combining caron (rising tone), ̂ for combining circumflex (falling tone).