Help:IPA/Catalan

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Catalan language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-ca}}, {{IPA-va}}, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Two Catalan varieties are covered here: Standard Catalan (C)—based in Central Catalonia, encompassing most Eastern Catalan features—and Standard Valencian (V)—based in Southern Valencia, encompassing most Western Catalan features. Standard Catalan is preferred on Wikipedia because it is the most prestigious and neutral variety. However, wherever clearly more relevant (for instance, in the case of a Valencian artist), Standard Valencian pronunciation should be transcribed instead.

See Catalan phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Catalan, and Catalan orthography for the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation.

IPAConsonants
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
ExamplesEnglish approximation
bbbell, àmbit, capgròs[1]best
vvell, envit[1][2]best (C), vest (V)
βavanç, selva[3]a vest
babans, arbre[3]a vest (C), the best (V)
ddrac, indret, ritme[1]door
dzdztretze, tots alhora[1]pads
zutilitzapads (C), zebra (V)
mitjà, migdia[1]jeep
ðcada, lladre[3]other
fforça, bafs, salvface
ɡguant, angle, guiar, ècdisi[1]get
ɣaigües, agrat, lloguer[3]roughly like get
kcors, quan, qui, llarg, kiwiscan
llaca, cel·la,[4] val[5]US look – dark l
ʎcella,[4] Elx[5]billion
mmeu, canvi[5]mode
nneu, dansa[5]need
ɲnyeu, penges[5]onion
ŋsang, cigne[5]ring
ppor, dubtespan
rruc, mirra, honra[6]Scots rooktrilled r
ɾmira, truc, per[6]US ladder
sset, essack
ʃcaixafish (C), geisha (V)
ʃXixona, guixfish
xec, Barxfish (C), cheap (V)
tterra, fredstand
tspotser, totscats
txec, migcheap
vhafni, bafs d'aigua[1]of
zzel, esma[1]zebra
ʒjoc, gesparouge (C), jeep (V)
jjorouge (C), young (V)
caixmir, peix blanc[1]rouge (C), beige (V)
ʒguix verd[1]rouge
IPAMarginal consonants
hHawaii, ehem[7]ham
θSmith, Pozothing
xkharja, Bach, JaénScots loch
 
IPASemivowels[8]
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
ExamplesEnglish approximation
jiogurt, llei, posa-hiyoung
wquatre, Güell, lleu, posa-hoquick
IPAVowels
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
ExamplesEnglish approximation
asac, ànecsfather
ɛɛset, èxitpet (C), pat (V)
esec, què[9]pet (C), face (V)
eséc, anells, ídem[10]face
əde[11]alpha (C), face (V)
afadrí, entens[11]alpha (C), father (V)
inaixementalpha (C), meet (V)
isic, ties, fillet[11]meet
ɔsoc, aixòoff
oosóc, molt, ego, mouré[10]story
uoratge[11]rule (C), story (V)
usuc, dues, fullet, cobert[11]rule
 
IPASuprasegmentals
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
ExamplesExplanation
ˈdac [ˈdiðək] (C) / [ˈdiðak] (V)primary stress
ˌBellpuig [ˌbeʎˈputʃ] (C / V)secondary stress
.Maria [məˈɾi.ə] (C) / [maˈɾi.a] (V)syllable break
ːImma [ˈimːə] (C) / [ˈimːa] (V)long vowel / consonant
IPAOther representations
( )Corts [ˈkoɾ(t)s] (C / V)optional sound

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Obstruents assimilate to the voicing of the following consonant. In syllables produced in utterance-final position (i.e. the coda), voiced obstruents become devoiced (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:63), Wheeler (2005:147–149)).
  2. ^ While betacism (that is, the merging of /b/ and /v/ into one phoneme) is common in most speakers of Catalan and in Valencia, several dialects still contrast the two sounds (usually represented as ⟨b⟩ and ⟨v⟩ respectively in Catalan orthography). The contrast is also maintained in Standard Valencian (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:61), Wheeler (2005:13)).
  3. ^ a b c d Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ become lenited [β, ð, ɣ] (that is, approximants or fricatives of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced or devoiced stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/. In traditional non-betacist dialects, /b/ usually fails to lenite (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:63), Wheeler (2005:10, 310–326)).
  4. ^ a b Catalan orthography distinguishes between ⟨ll⟩ (representing /ʎ/) and ⟨l·l⟩ (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of ⟨l·l⟩ is ignored altogether. Some dialects as well as young speakers can merge /ʎ/ with the glide [j] in a process similar to Spanish yeísmo.
  5. ^ a b c d e f /l/ and /n/ assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant (Rafel (1999:14), Wheeler (2005:166–204)).
  6. ^ a b The rhotic consonants ⟨r⟩ /ɾ/ and ⟨rr⟩ /r/ only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ⟨r⟩ with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and in compounds; and [ɾ] after hard plosives, the soft spirants [β, ð, ɣ], and /f/. Syllable-final /ɾ/ varies according to dialect, emphasis, morpheme and the following sound. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, /ɾ/ is lost in coda position in suffixes of nouns and adjectives denoting the masculine singular and in the infinitive suffixes of verbs, except when the following morpheme begins with a vowel, although this may vary (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:63–64), Wheeler (2005:24–25)).
  7. ^ Other than in loanwords and interjections, the letter ⟨h⟩ is always silent.
  8. ^ The semivowels /j/ and /w/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:62), Wheeler (2005:90–91)). For a list with all the combinations, see Catalan phonology § Diphthongs and triphthongs.
  9. ^ Many words that have /ɛ/ in Standard Catalan have /e/ in Standard Valencian. The latter is the historical pronunciation.
  10. ^ a b In Standard Catalan, unstressed [e] and [o] appear only in some words such as ídem [ˈidem], oceans [useˈans], ego [ˈeɣo] and mouré [mowˈɾe]. In other cases, they merge with [ə] and [u] (Wheeler (2005:61–72)).
  11. ^ a b c d e In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan: [a, ɛ, e] merge to [ə], whereas [ɔ, o, u] merge to [u], leaving only [ə, i, u] in most unstressed syllables.
    • Western Catalan: [ɛ, e] merge to [e] and [ɔ, o] merge to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed ⟨e⟩ and ⟨o⟩ may merge with [a] and [u] respectively (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:62–63), Wheeler (2005:52–77)).