Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
Kamerlingh Onnes signed.jpg
BornHeike Kamerlingh Onnes
(1853-09-21)21 September 1853
Groningen, Netherlands
Died21 February 1926(1926-02-21) (aged 72)
Leiden, Netherlands
Alma materHeidelberg University
University of Groningen
Known forLiquid helium
Virial equation of state
Coining the term “enthalpy
Kamerlingh Onnes Award
AwardsMatteucci Medal (1910)
Rumford Medal (1912)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1913)
Franklin Medal (1915)
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Leiden
Delft Polytechnic
Doctoral advisorRudolf Adriaan Mees
Other academic advisorsRobert Bunsen
Gustav Kirchhoff
Johannes Bosscha
Doctoral studentsJacob Clay
Wander de Haas
Gilles Holst
Johannes Kuenen
Pieter Zeeman
InfluencesJohannes Diderik van der Waals
InfluencedWillem Hendrik Keesom

Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS ( (Dutch: [ˈɔnəs]); 21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate. He exploited the Hampson–Linde cycle to investigate how materials behave when cooled to nearly absolute zero and later to liquefy helium for the first time, in 1908. He was also the discoverer of superconductivity in 1911.[1][2][3]


Early years

Kamerlingh Onnes was born in Groningen, Netherlands. His father, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, was a brickworks owner. His mother was Anna Gerdina Coers of Arnhem.[4]

In 1870, Kamerlingh Onnes attended the University of Groningen. He studied under Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff at the University of Heidelberg from 1871 to 1873. Again at Groningen, he obtained his masters in 1878 and a doctorate in 1879. His thesis was Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde (tr. New proofs of the rotation of the earth). From 1878 to 1882 he was assistant to Johannes Bosscha, the director of the Delft Polytechnic, for whom he substituted as lecturer in 1881 and 1882.[4]


He was married to Maria Adriana Wilhelmina Elisabeth Bijleveld (m. 1887) and had one child, named Albert. His brother Menso Kamerlingh Onnes (1860–1925) was a fairly well known painter (and father of another painter, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes), while his sister Jenny married another famous painter, Floris Verster (1861–1927).

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Heyke Kamerlinq Onnes
Ελληνικά: Χάικε Κάμερλιν
Bahasa Indonesia: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
Kreyòl ayisyen: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
norsk nynorsk: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
slovenščina: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
татарча/tatarça: Heyke Kamerling Onnes
Tiếng Việt: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
粵語: 昂內斯