Harlem

Harlem
Brick townhouse along a street, which is lined with trees.
Apartment buildings next to Morningside Park
Nickname(s): 
"Heaven", "
Location in New York City
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
Borough Manhattan
Community DistrictManhattan 10[1]
Founded1658
Named forHaarlem, Netherlands
Area
 • Total3.63 km2 (1.400 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[2]:2
 • Total116,345
 • Density32,000/km2 (83,000/sq mi)
Economics
 • Median income$49,059
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
10026, 10027, 10030, 10037, 10039
Area code212, 332, 646, and 917

Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. The greater Harlem area encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, and south to 96th Street.

Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658,[4] it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle.[5] Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century, but African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers during the Great Migration in the 20th century. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929–1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly, and from the second half of the 20th century to the early 2000s, most of greater Harlem's residents were black.[6] Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth.

Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10026, 10027, 10030, 10037, and 10039.[1] It is patrolled by the 28th and 32nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department.

Geography

Map of Upper Manhattan, with Greater Harlem highlighted. Harlem proper is the neighborhood in the center.

Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan, often referred to as Uptown by locals. The three neighborhoods that comprise greater Harlem (composed of Community Districts 9, 10, and 11) stretch from the Harlem River and East River in the east, to the Hudson River to the west; and between 155th Street in the north, where it meets Washington Heights, and an uneven boundary along the south that runs along 96th Street east of Fifth Avenue, 110th Street between Fifth Avenue to Morningside Park, and 125th Street west of Morningside Park to the Hudson River.[7][8][9] These boundaries are also cited by Encyclopædia Britannica,[10] though the Encyclopedia of New York City takes a much more conservative view of Harlem's boundaries, only regarding central Harlem as part of Harlem proper.[11]:573

Central Harlem is the name of Harlem proper. This section is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east; Central Park on the south; Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west; and the Harlem River on the north.[7] A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park, also known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem. This area falls under Manhattan Community District 10.[7] In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets.[12][13] Central Harlem includes the Mount Morris Park Historic District.

West Harlem is composed of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, which collectively comprise Manhattan Community District 9 and are not part of Harlem proper. The two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway/110th Street on the south; 155th Street on the north; Manhattan/Morningside Ave/St. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecombe Avenues on the east; and Riverside Park/the Hudson River on the west. Manhattanville begins at roughly 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street. The northernmost section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights.[8]

East Harlem, also called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan Community District 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the east. It is not part of Harlem proper.[9]

SoHa controversy

In the 2010s, some real estate professionals started rebranding south Harlem and Morningside Heights as "SoHa" in an attempt to gentrify the neighborhood.[14][15][16][17][18] New York City politicians have initiated legislative efforts to curtail this practice of neighborhood rebranding.[18]

Political representation

Politically, central Harlem is in New York's 13th congressional district.[19][20] It is in the New York State Senate's 30th district,[21][22] the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts,[23][24] and the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, and 9th districts.[25]

Other Languages
asturianu: Harlem
беларуская: Гарлем
български: Харлем (Ню Йорк)
brezhoneg: Harlem
català: Harlem
Чӑвашла: Гарлем
čeština: Harlem
dansk: Harlem
Deutsch: Harlem
eesti: Harlem
Ελληνικά: Χάρλεμ
español: Harlem
euskara: Harlem
français: Harlem
Gaeilge: Harlem
galego: Harlem
한국어: 할렘
hrvatski: Harlem
Bahasa Indonesia: Harlem
italiano: Harlem
עברית: הארלם
ქართული: ჰარლემი
Latina: Harlem
latviešu: Hārlema (ASV)
Lëtzebuergesch: Harlem
Bahasa Melayu: Harlem
Nederlands: Harlem
norsk: Harlem
پښتو: هارلم
português: Harlem
română: Harlem
Simple English: Harlem
slovenčina: Harlem
српски / srpski: Харлем (Њујорк)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Harlem
suomi: Harlem
svenska: Harlem
українська: Гарлем (Нью-Йорк)
Tiếng Việt: Harlem
中文: 哈莱姆