Harlem

Harlem
Brick townhouse along a street, which is lined with trees.
Apartment buildings next to Morningside Park
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
"Making It!"
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°49′N 73°57′W / 40°49′N 73°57′W / 40.81; -73.95New York
Founded1658
Named forHaarlem, Netherlands
Area
 • Total10.03 km2 (3.871 sq mi)
Population
(2000)[2][3][4]
 • Total335,109
 • Density33,000/km2 (87,000/sq mi)
Economics
ZIP Codes
10026–10027, 10029–10031, 10035, 10037, 10039
Area codes 212, 332, 646, and 917

Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Since the 1920s, Harlem has been known as a major African American residential, cultural and business center. Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658,[5] it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle.[6]

Following the Civil War of 1861-1865, Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans. African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers in 1905 as part of the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929-1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly. Harlem's African-American population peaked in the 1950s.[7]In the second half of the 20th century, Harlem became a major hub of African-American businesses. In 2008, the United States Census found that, for the first time since the 1930s, fewer than half of the residents were black, constituting only 40% of the population.[7]

Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth.

Geography

Map of Upper Manhattan, with Harlem and its subsections highlighted

Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan, often referred to as Uptown by locals. It stretches from the Harlem River and East River in the east, to the Hudson River to the west; and between 155th Street in the north, where it meets Washington Heights, and an uneven boundary along the south that runs along 96th Street east of Fifth Avenue, 110th Street between Fifth Avenue to Morningside Park, and 125th Street west of Morningside Park to the Hudson River.

Central Harlem is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the north.[8] A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park, also known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem. The bulk of the area falls under Manhattan Community Board No. 10.[2] In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets.[9][10]

The West Harlem neighborhoods of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights comprise part of Manhattan Community Board No. 9. The two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway (110th Street) on the South; 155th Street on the North; Manhattan/Morningside Ave/St. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the East; and Riverside Park/the Hudson River on the west. Manhattanville begins at roughly 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street. The northern most section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights.[3]

East Harlem, also called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, and the Harlem River on the east.[4]

Emergency services and representation

The New York City Police Department patrols six precincts located within Harlem. The areas of West Harlem are served by the 30th Precinct,[11] and the 26th Precinct,[12] the areas of Central Harlem are served by the 28th[13] and 32nd Precincts,[14] and the areas of East Harlem are served by the 23rd[15] and 25th Precincts.[16]

The New York City Fire Department operates nine firehouses in Harlem, organized into two Battalions. The following fire companies are quartered in Harlem: Engine 35, Engine 37, Engine 47, Engine 58, Engine 59, Engine 69, Engine 80, Engine 84, Engine 91, Ladder 14, Ladder 23, Ladder 26, Ladder 28, Ladder 30, Ladder 34, Ladder 40, and the Chiefs of the 12th and 16th Battalions.

Harlem is represented by New York's 13th congressional district, the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, and the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, and 9th districts.

Other Languages
asturianu: Harlem
беларуская: Гарлем
български: Харлем (Ню Йорк)
brezhoneg: Harlem
català: Harlem
Чӑвашла: Гарлем
čeština: Harlem
dansk: Harlem
Deutsch: Harlem
eesti: Harlem
español: Harlem
euskara: Harlem
français: Harlem
Gaeilge: Harlem
galego: Harlem
한국어: 할렘
hrvatski: Harlem
Bahasa Indonesia: Harlem
italiano: Harlem
עברית: הארלם
ქართული: ჰარლემი
Latina: Harlem
latviešu: Hārlema (ASV)
Lëtzebuergesch: Harlem
Bahasa Melayu: Harlem
Nederlands: Harlem
norsk: Harlem
português: Harlem
română: Harlem
Simple English: Harlem
slovenčina: Harlem
српски / srpski: Харлем (Њујорк)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Harlem
suomi: Harlem
svenska: Harlem
українська: Гарлем (Нью-Йорк)
Tiếng Việt: Harlem
中文: 哈莱姆