Hardcore punk

Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock.[9] Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk.[7] New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy, and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock"[10] and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."[11]

Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, D.C., New York, New Jersey, and Boston—as well as in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew. Hardcore was heavily involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has also influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal.

While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years.[12] In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Brazil, Japan, Europe and the Middle East.

Origin of term

Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D.O.A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore '81 "...was where the genre got its name."[13] This album also helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore".[14][15] Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L.A. Punk Rock scene", which included young skateboarders.[16] A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Washington D.C.[17] Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is also a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music.[18] Blush also states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."[19]

Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community.[20] Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship"; prospective members of the band were chosen based on being part of the local hardcore scene and being regularly in the moshing pit at shows, rather than based on a musical audition.[20]

Other Languages
العربية: هاردكور بانك
беларуская: Хардкор (панк-рок)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гардкор-панк
български: Хардкор пънк
català: Hardcore punk
čeština: Hardcore
Deutsch: Hardcore Punk
Ελληνικά: Hardcore punk
español: Hardcore punk
euskara: Hardcore punk
français: Punk hardcore
hrvatski: Hardcore punk
Bahasa Indonesia: Hardcore punk
íslenska: Harðkjarnapönk
italiano: Hardcore punk
kaszëbsczi: Hardcore punk
lietuvių: Hardcore punk
lumbaart: Hardcore punk
македонски: Хардкор панк
Bahasa Melayu: Hardcore punk
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Hardcore punk
Nederlands: Hardcore punk
नेपाल भाषा: हार्डकोर पंक
norsk nynorsk: Hardcore punk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hardcore punk
português: Hardcore punk
română: Hardcore punk
русский: Хардкор-панк
Simple English: Hardcore punk
slovenčina: Hardcore punk
slovenščina: Hardcore punk
српски / srpski: Hardkor pank
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hardcore punk
svenska: Hardcorepunk
Tagalog: Hardcore punk
татарча/tatarça: Хардкор
Türkçe: Hardcore punk
українська: Хардкор-панк
Tiếng Việt: Hardcore punk
中文: 硬核朋克