Hard rock

Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar, drums, and often accompanied with keyboards.

Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Queen, Deep Purple, Aerosmith, Kiss and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock,[1][2] while others began to return to a hard rock sound.[3] Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the later part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop, grunge and later Britpop in the 1990s.

Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, and new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes. Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and, later on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain highly successful recording careers.

Definitions

Drum notation for a back beat[4]

Hard rock is a form of loud, aggressive rock music. The electric guitar is often emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, and as a solo lead instrument.[5] Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis.[6] The bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums, occasionally playing riffs, but usually providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars.[7] Vocals are often growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or even falsetto voice.[8]

Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has historically been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience, particularly white, working-class adolescents.[6]

In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but gradually began to be used to describe music played with even more volume and intensity.[9] While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs often functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them.[5] Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres, often termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, and which further differentiated the two styles.[7] Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands frequently standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres.[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hardrock
Alemannisch: Hardrock
العربية: هارد روك
asturianu: Hard rock
azərbaycanca: Hard rok
বাংলা: হার্ড রক
беларуская: Хард-рок
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гард-рок
български: Хард рок
bosanski: Hard rock
català: Rock dur
čeština: Hard rock
dansk: Hård rock
Deutsch: Hard Rock
eesti: Hard rock
Ελληνικά: Hard rock
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Hard rock
español: Hard rock
Esperanto: Ŝtonroko
euskara: Hard rock
فارسی: هارد راک
Fiji Hindi: Hard rock
føroyskt: Hard rock
français: Hard rock
galego: Hard rock
한국어: 하드 록
հայերեն: Հարդ ռոք
hrvatski: Hard rock
Bahasa Indonesia: Hard rock
italiano: Hard rock
עברית: הארד רוק
ქართული: მძიმე როკი
latviešu: Smagais roks
lietuvių: Sunkusis rokas
magyar: Hard rock
македонски: Хард-рок
Bahasa Melayu: Hard rock
монгол: Хард рок
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Hard rock
Nederlands: Hardrock
नेपाल भाषा: हार्ड रक
norsk: Hardrock
norsk nynorsk: Hardrock
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hard rock
polski: Hard rock
português: Hard rock
română: Hard rock
русский: Хард-рок
Scots: Hard rock
shqip: Hard rock
sicilianu: Hard rock
Simple English: Hard rock
slovenčina: Hard rock
slovenščina: Hard rock
کوردی: ھارد ڕۆک
српски / srpski: Хард рок
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hard rock
suomi: Hard rock
svenska: Hard rock
தமிழ்: கடின ராக்
Türkçe: Hard rock
українська: Хардрок
Tiếng Việt: Hard rock
žemaitėška: Hard rock
中文: 硬式搖滾