Hangul

Hangul or Hangeul
Korean alphabet
Hangeul or Chosŏn'gŭl  (Korean)
Hangul chosongul fontembed.svg
The top reads Chosŏn'gŭl; the bottom, Hangeul
Type
LanguagesOfficial script of:
CreatorSejong the Great
Time period
1443-present
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Hang, 286
Unicode alias
Hangul
Hangul is usually written horizontally, from left to right. When written vertically, the writing system is top to bottom and often right to left, but sometimes top to bottom and left to right.

Hangul (l/ HAHN-gool;[1] from Korean hangeul 한글 [ha(ː)n.ɡɯl]) is the Korean alphabet. It has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century under Sejong the Great.[2][3]

It is the official writing system of South Korea and North Korea. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China. It is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Bau-Bau, Indonesia.

The alphabet consists of 14 consonants and 10 vowels. Hangul letters are grouped into syllabic blocks, vertically and horizontally. For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ.[4] As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, Hangul has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists.[5][6] As in traditional Chinese writing, Hangul texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, and are occasionally still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, Hangul is typically written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation.[7]

Some linguists consider Hangul the most logical writing system in the world, partly because the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant.[5][7][8]

Names

Official names

Korean name (South Korea)
Hangul 한글
Revised Romanization Han(-)geul
McCune–Reischauer Han'gŭl[9]
IPA [ha(ː)n.ɡɯl]
Korean name (North Korea)
Chosŏn'gŭl 조선글
Revised Romanization Joseon(-)geul
McCune–Reischauer Chosŏn'gŭl
IPA [tso.sɔn.ɡɯl]
The word "Hangul", written in Hangul

The Korean alphabet was originally called Hunminjeongeum (훈민정음), after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446.[10]

Today, South Koreans call the Korean alphabet hangeul (한글), a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912. The name combines the ancient Korean word han (), meaning "great", and geul (), meaning "script". The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name also means "Korean script".[11] It has been romanized in multiple ways:

North Koreans call the Korean alphabet Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea.[12] The McCune–Reischauer system is used.

Other names

Until the early 20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja. They referred to Hanja as jinseo (진서) or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to Hangul derisively as amkeul (암클) meaning "women's script", and ahaetgeul (아햇글) meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.[13]

Supporters of Hangul referred to it as jeong-eum (정음) meaning "correct pronunciation", gungmun (국문) meaning "national script", and eonmun (언문) meaning "vernacular script".[13]

Other Languages
አማርኛ: ሃንጉል
العربية: هانغل
aragonés: Hangul
asturianu: Hangul
azərbaycanca: Hanqıl
Bahasa Banjar: Hangul
Bân-lâm-gú: Ko-lê-jī
башҡортса: Хангыль
беларуская: Хангыль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Хангыль
български: Хангъл
bosanski: Hangul
brezhoneg: Hangeul
буряад: Хангыль
català: Hangul
čeština: Hangul
corsu: Hangul
Cymraeg: Hangeul
dansk: Hangul
dolnoserbski: Korejańske pismo
eesti: Korea kiri
Ελληνικά: Χάνγκουλ
español: Hangul
Esperanto: Korea alfabeto
فارسی: هانگول
føroyskt: Hangul
français: Hangeul
Gaeilge: Hangul
galego: Hangul
贛語: 朝鮮字母
한국어: 한글
Հայերեն: Հանգըլ
हिन्दी: हानगुल
hrvatski: Hangul
Ido: Hangul
Ilokano: Hangul
Bahasa Indonesia: Hangeul
íslenska: Hangul
italiano: Hangŭl
עברית: הנגול
Basa Jawa: Hangeul
Kapampangan: Alpabetung Koreanu
къарачай-малкъар: Хангыль
kaszëbsczi: Hangeul
қазақша: Корей жазуы
Kiswahili: Hangul
latviešu: Hangils
lietuvių: Hangul
magyar: Hangul
македонски: Хангул
Malagasy: Hangul
മലയാളം: ഹൻ‌ഗുൾ
मराठी: हांगुल
Bahasa Melayu: Hangul
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dièu-siēng-cê
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟန်းဂု
Nederlands: Hangul
日本語: ハングル
нохчийн: Хангыль
norsk: Hangul
norsk nynorsk: Hangul
occitan: Hangeul
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Hangul
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਾਂਗਗੁਲ
پنجابی: ہنگول
Piemontèis: Hangul
Tok Pisin: Hangul
polski: Hangul
português: Hangul
Qaraqalpaqsha: Koreys jazıwı
română: Hangul
русиньскый: Ганґыл
русский: Хангыль
саха тыла: Хангыль
Scots: Hangul
sicilianu: Hangul
සිංහල: හංගුල්
Simple English: Hangul
slovenčina: Kórejské písmo
slovenščina: Hangul
Soomaaliga: Hangul
کوردی: ھانگۆل
српски / srpski: Хангул
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hangul
Basa Sunda: Hangeul
suomi: Hangul
svenska: Hangul
Tagalog: Hangul
татарча/tatarça: Һангыл
тоҷикӣ: Ҳангул
Türkçe: Hangıl
тыва дыл: Хангыль
українська: Хангиль
اردو: ہنگل
Tiếng Việt: Hangul
Winaray: Hangul
吴语: 谚文字母
ייִדיש: האנגול
粵語: 諺文
žemaitėška: Hangul
中文: 諺文