Han–Liu War

Han–Liu War
Schantung Kiautschou.jpg
Map of Shandong, showing the railway between Jinan ("Tsi-nan-fu") and Qingdao ("Tsingtao") in the west and the mountainous Shandong Peninsula in the east.
DateSeptember–November 1932
ResultVictory of Han Fuju
Han Fuju's private army
Supported by:
Nationalist government
Liu Zhennian's private army
Commanders and leaders
Han FujuLiu Zhennian
Units involved
NRA units loyal to Han,
Republic of China Navy
NRA units loyal to Liu

The Han–Liu War was a major military conflict in late 1932 between the private armies of Han Fuju and Liu Zhennian over Shandong. Even though Han as well as Liu were officially subordinates to the Chinese Nationalist government in Nanjing, both were effectively warlords with their own autonomous territories. Han Fuju controlled most of Shandong and had long desired to also capture the eastern part of the province, which was held by Liu. The tensions between the two eventually escalated, leading to a war that saw Han emerge victorious. He went on to rule Shandong unopposed for the next six years, while Liu was exiled to southern China.


Han Fuju, official governor of Shandong
Liu Zhennian, ruler of eastern Shandong

Despite the Chinese Nationalists' victory during the Northern Expedition in 1928 and the reunification of China under the Nanjing government, warlordism throughout the nation did not end. Many warlords had opportunistically sided with the Nationalists, and had been allowed to keep their private armies as well as territories as long as they submitted to the new central government.[2][3] Among these opportunistic military strongmen were Han Fuju and Liu Zhennian.[1] Originally a follower of Feng Yuxiang, Han defected to the Nationalists during the Central Plains War and was awarded the governorship of Shandong in 1930. He subsequently consolidated most of the province under his rule,[4][5] with the exception of the Shandong Peninsula in its east. This area was held by Liu, who had already sided with the Nationalists in 1928 and been allowed to run eastern Shandong as his personal fiefdom.[6][7][8] Although challenged by a rebellion instigated by Zhang Zongchang[9] and a peasant insurgency,[7] Liu had managed to remain in power since then.[1]

As result, the province of Shandong was effectively divided between these two warlords. While Liu was mostly content with this situation, and simply desired to maintain his "comfortable existence in his eastern stronghold",[10] Han saw things differently. He wanted to bring Shandong "stability and prosperity, and protection from internal turbulence and from unnecessary warfare".[11] Liu, whose ruthlessness caused banditry and peasant insurgencies,[7] was thus seen as disruptive factor that Han wanted to remove. Another major point of contention between the two were the monthly allowances they received from the government. Allowances were given to all military governors so that they could maintain their armies, and thus crucial to any power struggle; thanks to his governorship, Han had the advantage in this regard. Han and Liu consequently grew into bitter rivals, though they initially remained at peace. The tensions between them finally escalated in 1932, when Han Fuju decided to launch a campaign to eliminate his rival and consolidate all of Shandong under his rule once and for all.[10]

Other Languages
中文: 膠東之戰