Hamburg

Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg
State of Germany
Alster Hd pano a.jpg
00 9920 Hamburg St. Michaelis.jpg
Projekt Heißluftballon - Highflyer -IMG-1420.jpg
Hamburg, Speicherstadt, Wasserschloss -- 2016 -- 3230-6.jpg
Rathaus Hbg.jpg
Flag of Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Flag
Coat of arms of Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Stadt Hamburg an der Elbe Auen
Deutschland Lage von Hamburg.svg
Coordinates: 53°33′55″N 10°00′05″E / 53°33′55″N 10°00′05″E / 53.56528; 10.00139
CountryGermany
Government
 • BodyBürgerschaft of Hamburg
 • First MayorPeter Tschentscher (SPD)
 • Governing partiesSPD / The Greens
 • Bundesrat votes3 (of 69)
Area
 • City755 km2 (292 sq mi)
Population (30 September 2016)[1]
 • City1,822,445
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
 • Metro5,107,429
Demonym(s)Hamburger[2]
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code(s)20001–21149, 22001–22769
Area code(s)040
ISO 3166 codeDE-HH
Vehicle registration
  • HH (1906–1945; again since 1956)
  • MGH (1945)
  • H (1945–1947)
  • HG (1947)
  • BH (1948–1956)
GDP (nominal)€111/$130 billion (2016)[3]
GDP per capita€62,000/$72,900[4] (2015)
NUTS RegionDE6
Websitewww.hamburg.de
Official logo of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Hamburg, seen from the International Space Station

Hamburg (English: ɡ/; German: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k] (About this sound listen); locally: [-bʊɪ̯ç] (About this sound listen)), Low German: Hamborg [ˈhambɔːç] (About this sound listen), officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Low German: Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),[5] is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people.

The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe.

Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis, Beiersdorf, and Unilever.

The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, who governed Germany for eight years, came from Hamburg.

The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016.[6] The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015.[7]

Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Elbphilharmonie and Laeiszhalle concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

Geography

Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster"), both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, and Nigehörn, 100 kilometres (60 mi) away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of the city of Hamburg.[8]

The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land (old land) region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres (381 ft) AMSL.[9] Hamburg borders the states of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony.

Climate

Hamburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb), influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred,[10] the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year.[11][12]

The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C (68.2 to 72.5 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C (31.5 to 33.8 °F).[13]

Climate data for Hamburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
17.2
(63)
23.0
(73.4)
29.7
(85.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.6
(94.3)
36.9
(98.4)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
26.1
(79)
20.2
(68.4)
15.7
(60.3)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.4
(39.9)
8.0
(46.4)
12.3
(54.1)
17.5
(63.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72)
17.9
(64.2)
13.0
(55.4)
7.5
(45.5)
4.6
(40.3)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.6
(34.9)
4.6
(40.3)
7.8
(46)
12.5
(54.5)
15.2
(59.4)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
13.7
(56.7)
9.5
(49.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.3
(36.1)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.1
(34)
3.3
(37.9)
7.4
(45.3)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.5
(54.5)
9.6
(49.3)
6.0
(42.8)
2.4
(36.3)
0.0
(32)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−15.3
(4.5)
−7.1
(19.2)
−5.0
(23)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
−7.1
(19.2)
−15.4
(4.3)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−29.1
(−20.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 67.8
(2.669)
49.9
(1.965)
67.7
(2.665)
43.0
(1.693)
57.4
(2.26)
78.6
(3.094)
76.7
(3.02)
78.9
(3.106)
67.4
(2.654)
67.0
(2.638)
69.2
(2.724)
68.9
(2.713)
792.6
(31.205)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.1 9.2 11.3 8.9 9.6 11.3 11.4 10.2 10.8 10.5 11.7 12.4 129.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.9 69.0 108.8 171.6 223.4 198.7 217.5 203.1 144.6 107.9 53.0 37.4 1,581.9
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[13]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst[14]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Hamburg
Akan: Hamburg
Alemannisch: Hamburg
አማርኛ: ሃምቡርግ
Ænglisc: Hamburg
العربية: هامبورغ
aragonés: Hamburgo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܗܐܡܒܘܪܓ
asturianu: Hamburgu
Avañe'ẽ: Hamburgo
Aymar aru: Hamburg
azərbaycanca: Hamburq
تۆرکجه: هامبورق
বাংলা: হামবুর্গ
Bân-lâm-gú: Hamburg
беларуская: Гамбург
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Гамбург
भोजपुरी: हैम्बर्ग
български: Хамбург
Boarisch: Hamburg
bosanski: Hamburg
brezhoneg: Hamburg
буряад: Һамбург
català: Hamburg
Чӑвашла: Гамбург
čeština: Hamburk
Chamoru: Hamburg
chiTumbuka: Hamburg
Cymraeg: Hamburg
dansk: Hamborg
davvisámegiella: Hamborg
Deitsch: Hamburg
Deutsch: Hamburg
dolnoserbski: Hamburg
eesti: Hamburg
Ελληνικά: Αμβούργο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ambûrg
эрзянь: Гамбург ош
español: Hamburgo
Esperanto: Hamburgo
estremeñu: Amburgu
euskara: Hanburgo
فارسی: هامبورگ
føroyskt: Hamburg
français: Hambourg
Frysk: Hamburch
furlan: Amburc
Gaeilge: Hamburg
Gaelg: Hamburg
Gàidhlig: Hamburg
galego: Hamburgo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hamburg
한국어: 함부르크
Hausa: Hamburg
Hawaiʻi: Hamepuka
Հայերեն: Համբուրգ
हिन्दी: हैम्बर्ग
hornjoserbsce: Hamburg
hrvatski: Hamburg
Ido: Hamburg
Ilokano: Hamburg
Bahasa Indonesia: Hamburg
interlingua: Hamburgo
Interlingue: Hamburg
Ирон: Гамбург
isiXhosa: Hamburg
íslenska: Hamborg
italiano: Amburgo
עברית: המבורג
Basa Jawa: Hamburg
Kapampangan: Hamburg
ქართული: ჰამბურგი
kaszëbsczi: Hambùrg
қазақша: Гамбург
kernowek: Hamburg
Kiswahili: Hamburg
Kongo: Hamburg
kurdî: Hamburg
Кыргызча: Гамбург
кырык мары: Гамбург
Ladino: Hamburgo
Latina: Hamburgum
latviešu: Hamburga
Lëtzebuergesch: Hamburg
lietuvių: Hamburgas
Ligure: Ambûrgo
Limburgs: Hamburg
lumbaart: Amburgh
magyar: Hamburg
македонски: Хамбург
മലയാളം: ഹാംബർഗ്
Malti: Amburgu
मराठी: हांबुर्ग
მარგალური: ჰამბურგი
مصرى: هامبورج
Bahasa Melayu: Hamburg
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hamburg
монгол: Хамбург
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဟမ်းဗတ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Hamburg
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Hamburg
Nederlands: Hamburg
Nedersaksies: Hambörg
नेपाली: ह्याम्बर्ग
नेपाल भाषा: ह्याम्बर्ग
日本語: ハンブルク
нохчийн: Гамбург
Nordfriisk: Hambörj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Hamburg
norsk: Hamburg
norsk nynorsk: Hamburg
Novial: Hamburg
occitan: Amborg
олык марий: Гамбург
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gamburg
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਾਮਬੁਰਕ
Pälzisch: Hamburg
پنجابی: ہامبرگ
Papiamentu: Hamburg
Picard: Hambourq
Piemontèis: Amborgh
Plattdüütsch: Hamborg
polski: Hamburg
português: Hamburgo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Gamburg
Ripoarisch: Hamburg
română: Hamburg
Romani: Hamburg
rumantsch: Hamburg
Runa Simi: Hamburg
русский: Гамбург
sardu: Amburgo
Scots: Hamburgh
Seeltersk: Hambuurich
shqip: Hamburgu
sicilianu: Amburgu
Simple English: Hamburg
slovenčina: Hamburg
slovenščina: Hamburg
ślůnski: Hamburg
کوردی: ھامبورگ
српски / srpski: Хамбург
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hamburg
suomi: Hampuri
svenska: Hamburg
தமிழ்: ஆம்பர்கு
татарча/tatarça: Һамбург
тоҷикӣ: Ҳамбург
Türkçe: Hamburg
Twi: Hamburg
українська: Гамбург
اردو: ہامبرگ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Hamburg
vèneto: Anburgo
vepsän kel’: Gamburg
Tiếng Việt: Hamburg
Volapük: Hamburg
文言: 漢堡
West-Vlams: Hamburg
Winaray: Hamburg
吴语: 汉堡
ייִדיש: האמבורג
Yorùbá: Hamburg
粵語: 漢堡
Zazaki: Hamburg
中文: 汉堡
ГӀалгӀай: Ӏамбий
Lingua Franca Nova: Hamburg