Halford Mackinder

Sir Halford Mackinder
Halford Mackinder (1).jpg
BornHalford John Mackinder
(1861-02-15)15 February 1861
Gainsborough, England
Died6 March 1947(1947-03-06) (aged 86)
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford
Known for"The Geographical Pivot of History"
AwardsCharles P. Daly Medal (1943)
Scientific career
FieldsGeography, geopolitics, geostrategy
InfluencedNicholas Spykman, Karl Haushofer, Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Dimitri Kitsikis, Aleksandr Dugin

Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (15 February 1861 – 6 March 1947) was an English geographer, academic, politician, the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading (which became the University of Reading) and Director of the London School of Economics, who is regarded as one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.

Early life and education

Mackinder was born in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England, the son of a doctor, and educated at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Gainsborough (now Queen Elizabeth's High School), Epsom College and Christ Church, Oxford. At Oxford he started studying natural sciences, specialising in zoology under Henry Nottidge Moseley, who had been the naturalist on the Challenger expedition. When he turned to the study of history, he remarked that he was returning "to an old interest and took up modern history with the idea of seeing how the theory of evolution would appear in human development". He was a strong proponent of treating both physical geography and human geography as a single discipline. Mackinder served as President of the Oxford Union in 1883.[1]

He received a degree in biology in 1883 and one in modern history the next year.[2]

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