|Ciudad de Guadalajara|
City of Guadalajara
|Nickname(s): The Pearl of the West, The City of the Roses|
|Foundation||February 14, 1542|
|Founded as||Villa de Guadalajara|
| • ||Ismael del Toro Castro (|
|• City||151 km2 (58 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,734 km2 (1,056 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,566 m (5,138 ft)|
|• City||1,460,148 |
|• Density||10,361/km2 (26,830/sq mi)|
| • ||5,002,466 |
|• Metro density||1,583/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
| • |
| • Summer (|
Guadalajara is the 10th largest Latin American city in population, urban area and
Guadalajara is a cultural center of Mexico, considered by most to be the home of
The city was established in five other places before moving to its current location. The first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as
This settlement was ferociously attacked during the
The village of Guadalajara barely survived the war, and the villagers attributed their survival to the
In 1559, royal offices for the province of
The historic city center encompasses what was four centers of population, as the villages of Mezquitán, Analco and Mexicaltzingo were annexed to the Atemajac site in 1669.
In 1791, the
Guadalajara's economy during the 18th century was based on agriculture and the production of non-durable goods such as textiles, shoes and food products.
Guadalajara remained the capital of Nueva Galicia with some modifications until the
Royalist forces marched to Guadalajara, arriving in January 1811 with nearly 6,000 men. Insurgents
After the state of Jalisco was erected in 1823, the city became its capital. In 1844,
Despite the violence, the 19th century was a period of economic, technological and social growth for the city. After Independence, small-scale industries developed, many of them owned by immigrants from Europe. Rail lines connecting the city to the Pacific coast and north to the United States intensified trade and allowed products from rural areas of Jalisco state to be shipped. Ranch culture became a very important aspect of Jalisco's and Guadalajara's identity during this time. From 1884 to 1890, electrical service, railroad service and the Observatory were established.
Guadalajara again experienced substantial growth after the 1930s, and the first industrial park was established in 1947. Its population surpassed one million in 1964, and by the 1970s it was Mexico's second-largest city and the largest in western Mexico. Most of the modern city's urbanization took place between the 1940s and the 1980s, with the population doubling every ten years until it stood at 2.5 million in 1980. The population of the municipality has stagnated, and even declined, slowly but steadily, since the early 1990s.
The increase in population brought with it an increase in the size of what is now called Greater Guadalajara, rather than an increase in the population density of the city. Migrants coming into Guadalajara from the 1940s to the 1980s were mostly from rural areas and lived in the city center until they had enough money to buy property. This property was generally bought in the edges of the city, which were urbanizing into fraccionamientos, or residential areas. In the 1980s, it was described as a "divided city" east to west based on socioeconomic class. Since then, the city has evolved into four sectors, which are still more or less class-centered. The upper classes tend to live in Hidalgo and Juárez in the northwest and southwest, while lower classes tend to live in the city center, Libertad in the northeast and southeast in Reforma. However, lower class development has developed on the city's periphery and upper and middle classes are migrating toward Zapopan, making the situation less neatly divided.(napolitano21-22).
Since 1996, the activity of multinational corporations has had a significant effect on the economic and social development of the city. The presence of companies such as
On April 22, 1992, gasoline explosions in the
Three days before the explosion, residents started complaining of a strong gasoline-like smell coming from the sewers. City workers were dispatched to check the sewers and found dangerously high levels of gasoline fumes. However, no evacuations were ordered. An investigation into the disaster found that there were two precipitating causes. The first was new water pipes that were built too close to an existing gasoline pipeline. Chemical reactions between the pipes caused erosion. The second was a flaw in the sewer design that did not allow accumulated gases to escape.
Arrests were made to indict those responsible for the blasts. Four officials of
The city has hosted important international events, such as the first Cumbre Iberoamericana in 1991, the Third Summit of Heads of State and Governments from Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union in 2004, the Encuentro Internacional de Promotores y Gestores Culturales in 2005, and the
In its 2007 survey entitled "Cities of the Future",