Group of Eight

Group of Eight
Map of G8 member nations and the European Union

 Canada

 France

 Germany

 Italy

 Japan

 Russia (suspended)[1][2]

 United Kingdom

 United States

 European Union

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation,[2] was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014.[3]

The forum originated with a 1975 summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6. The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven, or G7, in 1976 with the addition of Canada. Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended indefinitely following the annexation of Crimea, whereupon the political forum name reverted to G7.[4][5][6] In 2017 Russia announced its permanent withdrawal from the G8[2]. However, several representatives of G7 countries stated that they would be interested in Russia's return to the group.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] The European Union was represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits.[17] The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was able to host and chair a summit.Collectively, in 2012 the G8 nations comprised 50.1 percent of 2012 global nominal GDP and 40.9 percent of global GDP (PPP).

"G7" can refer to the member states in aggregate or to the annual summit meeting of the G7 heads of government. G7 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G7 foreign ministers, or G7 environment ministers.

Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 was rotated through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia (suspended), Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and determines which ministerial meetings will take place.

In 2005, the UK government initiated the practice of inviting five leading emerging markets — Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa — to participate in the G8 meetings that came to be known as G8+5, but this practice was short-lived.[3] With the G20 major economies growing in stature since the 2008 Washington summit, world leaders from the group announced at their Pittsburgh summit in September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations.[18][19] Nevertheless, the G7 retains its relevance as a "steering group for the West",[3] with special significance appointed to Japan.[20]

History

Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8)—or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of UK Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. President Bill Clinton,[21] President Boris Yeltsin was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. It was seen as a way to encourage Yeltsin with his capitalist reforms. Russia formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in the Group of Eight, or G8.

Food

A major focus of the G8 since 2009 has been the global supply of food.[22] At the 2009 L'Aquila summit, the G8's members promised to contribute $22 billion to the issue. By 2015, 93% of funds had been disbursed.[23]

At the 2012 summit, President Barack Obama asked G8 leaders to adopt the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition initiative to "help the rural poor produce more food and sell it in thriving local and regional markets as well as on the global market".[24][25]

Russia′s participation suspension (2014)

On 24 March 2014, the G7 members cancelled the planned G8 summit that was to be held in June that year in the Russian city of Sochi, and suspended Russia′s membership of the group, due to Russia's annexation of Crimea; nevertheless, they stopped short of outright permanent expulsion.[26] Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov downplayed the importance of the decision by the U.S. and its allies, and pointed up that major international decisions were taken by the G20 countries.[27][4]

Later on, the Italian Foreign Affairs minister Federica Mogherini and other Italian authorities,[7][8] along with the EastWest Institute board member Wolfgang Ischinger,[9] suggested that Russia may restore its membership in the group. In April 2015, the German foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier said that Russia would be welcomed to return to G8 provided the Minsk Protocol was implemented.[10] In 2016, he added that "none of the major international conflicts can be solved without Russia", and the G7 countries will consider Russia's return to the group in 2017. The same year, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe called for Russia's return to G8, stating that Russia's involvement is "crucial to tackling multiple crises in the Middle East".[11] In January 2017, the Italian foreign minister Angelino Alfano said that Italy hopes for "resuming the G8 format with Russia and ending the atmosphere of the Cold War".[12] On 13 January 2017, Russia announced that it would permanently leave the G8 grouping.[28] Nonetheless, Christian Lindner, the leader of Free Democratic Party of Germany and member of the Bundestag, said that Putin should be "asked to join the table of the G7" so that one could "talk with him and not about him", and "we cannot make all things dependent on the situation in Crimea".[13] In April 2018, the German politicians and members of the Bundestag Sahra Wagenknecht and Alexander Graf Lambsdorff said that Russia should be invited back to the group and attend the 2018 summit in Canada: "Russia should again be at the table during the [June] summit at the latest" because "peace in Europe and also in the Middle East is only possible with Russia".[14][15] The President of US Donald Trump also stated that Russia should be returned to G8; his appeal was supported by the Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte.[16]Later the 4 EU members of G7, Canada and Japan anyway didn't agree about it.[29][30] After several G7 members quickly rejected US President Trump suggestion to accept again Russian Federation in the G8, Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov said Russian Federation isn't interested to rejoin the political forum G8. He also said that G20 is sufficient for Russian Federation.[31] In the final statement of 2018 Canada meeting, the G7 members announced to recall sanctions and also to be ready to take further restrictive measures against the Russian Federation for the failure of Minsk Agreement complete implementation.[32][33]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Groep van Agt
asturianu: G8
azərbaycanca: Böyük Səkkizlər
বাংলা: জি৮
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Група Васьмі
български: Г8
bosanski: G8
brezhoneg: G8
буряад: Ехэ Найман
català: G8
čeština: G8
Cymraeg: G8
dansk: G8
eesti: G8
Ελληνικά: Ομάδα των Οκτώ
español: G8
Esperanto: G8
euskara: G8
فارسی: گروه هشت
Gaeilge: G8
Gaelg: G8
Gagauz: G - 8
galego: G8
한국어: G8
հայերեն: Մեծ ութնյակ
हिन्दी: जी८
hrvatski: G8
Ido: G8
Bahasa Indonesia: G8
italiano: G8
ქართული: დიდი რვიანი
Kiswahili: G8
kurdî: G8
Latina: G8
Lëtzebuergesch: G8
Ligure: G8
magyar: G8
македонски: Г8
मराठी: जी-८
مازِرونی: جی هشت
Bahasa Melayu: Kumpulan Lapan
монгол: Их найм
Nederlands: Groep van Acht
norsk: G8
norsk nynorsk: G8
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Katta sakkizlik
ភាសាខ្មែរ: G8
română: G8
Scots: G8
shqip: G8
sicilianu: G8
Simple English: G8
slovenčina: G8
српски / srpski: Г8
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: G8
suomi: G8
svenska: G8
தமிழ்: ஜி8
tarandíne: G8
татарча/tatarça: Зур сигезлек
Türkçe: G8
українська: G8
اردو: گروہ 8
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سەككىز دۆلەت گۇرۇھى (G8)
vèneto: G8
Tiếng Việt: G8
吴语: 八国集团
ייִדיש: גרופע 8
Zazaki: G8