Greeks

Greeks
Έλληνες
Flag of Greece.svg
Total population
c. 14 – c. 17 million[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
 Greece  10,000,000[3][4]
(2011 census)
 United States1,279,000–3,000,000b (2016 estimate)[5][6]
 Cyprus650,000–721,000a (2011 estimate)[7][8][9]
 United Kingdom290,000–345,000 (2011 estimate)[10]
 Germany395,000g (2012 estimate)[11]
 Australia378,300 (2011 census)[12]
 Canada252,960 (2011 census)[13]
 Albania200,000[14]
 Ukraine91,000 (2011 data)[15]
 Russia85,640 (2010 census)[16]
 Italy30,000–200,000d (2013 estimate)[17][18][19]
 South Africa45,000 (2011 estimate)[20]
 Brazil50,000e[21]
 France35,000 (2013 estimate)[22]
 Argentina20,000–30,000 (2013 estimate)[23]
 Czech Republic12,000[24]
 Belgium35,000 (2011 estimate)[25]
 Georgia15,000 (2011 estimate)[26]
 Sweden12,000–15,000 (2011 estimate)[27]
 Kazakhstan10,000–12,000 (2011 estimate)[28]
  Switzerland11,000 (2015 estimate)[29]
 Uzbekistan9,500 (2000 estimate)[30]
 Romania10,000 (2013 estimate)[31]
 Armenia6,000 (2002 estimate)[32]
 Mexico1,500 families (2013 estimate)[33]
 Austria5,000 (2011 estimate)[34]
 Turkey4,000[35][36]
 Hungary5,000 (2011 estimate)[37]
 Bulgaria28,500 (2011 estimate)[38]
 Poland3,000 (2011 estimate)[39]
 New Zealand2,470 (2013 census)[40]
 Syria1,500 (2008 estimate)[41]
 Chile1,500 (2013 estimate)[42]
Languages
Greek
Religion
mostly Greek Orthodox Church

a Citizens of Greece and the Republic of Cyprus. The Greek government does not collect information about ethnic self-determination at the national censuses.
b Includes those of ancestral descent.
c Those whose stated ethnic origins included "Greek" among others. The number of those whose stated ethnic origin is solely "Greek" is 145,250. An additional 3,395 Cypriots of undeclared ethnicity live in Canada.
dApprox. 60,000 Griko people and 30,000 post WW2 migrants.
e "Including descendants".
gIncludes people with "cultural roots".

The Greeks or Hellenes (z/; Greek: Έλληνες, Éllines [ˈelines]) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.[43]

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.[44][45] Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople.[45] Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization.[46] The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods.

Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.[47]

Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

History

A reconstruction of the 3rd millennium BC "Proto-Greek area", by Vladimir I. Georgiev.[48]

The Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic.[45] They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people".[49][50]

Origins

The Proto-Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC.[51][52][note 1] The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries later and are therefore subject to some uncertainties. There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC,[56][57] and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse.

An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period (3rd millennium BC), i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic.[58] Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC.[59]

Mycenaean

In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system (i.e. Linear A) and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B,[60] providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.[60][61] The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor.[45][62]

Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus.[63] Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders (Sea Peoples) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC.[64] The Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible.[65]

Funeral mask also known as “Agamemnon Mask”. Gold, found in Tomb V in Mycenae by Heinrich Schliemann (1876), XVIth century BC. National Archeological Museum, Athens.

The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth.[66] The Homeric Epics (i.e. Iliad and Odyssey) were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity.[65] As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece (e.g. Zeus, Poseidon and Hades) became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of later antiquity.[67]

Classical

Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.

The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC.[68] According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture.[43] The works of Homer (i.e. Iliad and Odyssey) and Hesiod (i.e. Theogony) were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology.[69] The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period.[70]

The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into "Classical", from the end of the Greco-Persian Wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and "Fourth Century", up to the death of Alexander). It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras.[71] The Classical period is also described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and its art, philosophy, architecture and literature would be instrumental in the formation and development of Western culture.

While the Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Hellenic genos,[72] their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states.[73] The Peloponnesian War, the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states Athens and Sparta and their allies, left both greatly weakened.[74]

Golden larnax of Philip II of Macedon (382-336 BC) found and exhibited in Vergina, Greece.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.

Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars' opinions, united under the banner of Philip's and Alexander the Great's Pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.[75]

In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and his advance as far as modern-day Pakistan and Tajikistan,[76] provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way.[77] While the Alexandrian empire did not survive its creator's death intact, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across much of the Middle East and Asia were to prove long lived as Greek became the lingua franca, a position it retained even in Roman times.[78] Many Greeks settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia.[79] Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.[80]

Hellenistic

The major Hellenistic realms c. 300 BC; the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue) and the Seleucid Empire (yellow).

The Hellenistic civilization was the next period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexander's death.[81] This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures,[82] lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BC.[81]

This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi.[83][84] Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the classical authors.[85] An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek) peoples, which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi-ethnic Hellenistic kingdoms.[85] This led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generation.[85] Greek science, technology and mathematics are generally considered to have reached their peak during the Hellenistic period.[86]

In the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, Greco-Buddhism was spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China.[87] Further east, the Greeks of Alexandria Eschate became known to the Chinese people as the Dayuan.[88]

Roman Empire

Following the time of the conquest of the last of the independent Greek city-states and Hellenistic (post-Alexandrine) kingdoms, almost all of the world's Greek speakers lived as citizens or subjects of the Roman Empire. Despite their military superiority, the Romans admired and became heavily influenced by the achievements of Greek culture, hence Horace's famous statement: Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit ("Greece, although captured, took its wild conqueror captive").[89]

In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place, saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BC continued with the introduction of new religious movements from the East.[43] The cults of deities like Isis and Mithra were introduced into the Greek world.[84][90] Greek-speaking communities of the Hellenized East were instrumental in the spread of early Christianity in the 2nd and 3rd centuries,[91] and Christianity's early leaders and writers (notably Saint Paul) were generally Greek-speaking,[92] though none were from Greece. However, Greece itself had a tendency to cling to paganism and was not one of the influential centers of early Christianity: in fact, some ancient Greek religious practices remained in vogue until the end of the 4th century,[93] with some areas such as the southeastern Peloponnese remaining pagan until well into the 10th century AD.[94]

Byzantine Empire

Of the new eastern religions introduced into the Greek world, the most successful was Christianity. From the early centuries of the Common Era, the Greeks self-identified as Romans (Greek: Ῥωμαῖοι Rhōmaîoi).[95] By that time, the name Hellenes denoted pagans but was revived as an ethnonym in the 11th century.[96] While ethnic distinctions still existed in the Roman Empire, they became secondary to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to support its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity.[97] There are three schools of thought regarding this Byzantine Roman identity in contemporary Byzantine scholarship: which could be regarded as preponderant in the field considers "Romanity" the mode of self-identification of the subjects of a multi-ethnic empire at least up to the 12th century, where the average subject identified as Roman; a perennialist approach, largely influenced by Greek nationalism, views Romanity as the medieval expression of a continuously existing Greek nation; while a view recently supported by Anthony Kaldellis considers the eastern Roman identity as a pre-modern national identity.[98]

Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople.

Concurrently, the secular, urban civilization of Late Antiquity survived in the Eastern Mediterranean along with the Greco-Roman educational system; the Byzantines' essential values were drawn from both Christianity and the Homeric tradition of ancient Greece.[99][100]

Byzantine mosaic depicting Empress Theodora (6th century)flanked by a chaplain and a court lady believed to be her confidant Antonina, wife of general Belisarius.

The Eastern Roman Empire (today conventionally named the Byzantine Empire, a name not used during its own time[101]) became increasingly influenced by Greek culture after the 7th century when Emperor Heraclius (r 610–641 AD) decided to make Greek the empire's official language.[102][103] Certainly from then on, but likely earlier, the Greek and Roman cultures were virtually fused into a single Greco-Roman world. Although the Catholic Church recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, after Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, as the "Roman Emperor" on 25 December 800, an act which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire, the Latin West started to favour the Franks and began to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire largely as the Empire of the Greeks (Imperium Graecorum).[104][105] In the eastern Roman Empire the use of the Latinizing term Graikoí (Γραικοί, "Greeks") was uncommon and nonexistent in official Byzantine political correspondence, prior to the Fourth Crusade of 1204.[106] While this Latin term for the ancient Hellenes could be used neutrally, its use by Westerners from the 9th century onwards in order to challenge Byzantine claims to ancient Roman heritage rendered it a derogatory exonym for the Byzantines who barely used it, mostly in contexts relating to the West, such as texts relating to the Council of Florence, to present the Western viewpoint.[107][108]

"Much of what we know of antiquity – especially of Hellenic and Roman literature and of Roman law — would have been lost for ever but for the scholars and scribes and copyists of Constantinople."
John J. Norwich[109]

These Byzantine Greeks were largely responsible for the preservation of the literature of the classical era.[100][109][110] Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to the West during the 15th century, giving the Italian Renaissance a major boost.[111][112] The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was nearly unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[113]

To the Slavic world, the Byzantine Greeks contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Byzantine Greek brothers, the monks Saints Cyril and Methodius from the port city of Thessalonica, capital of the theme of Thessalonica, who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet.[114]

In the classicizing tropes of Byzantine writings, the Byzantines customarily called themselves Ausones, the ancient Greek name for the inhabitants of Italy.[115] From the 12th century onwards, however, Byzantine Roman writers started to disassociate themselves from the Empire's pre-Constantinenan Latin past, regarding henceforth the transfer of the Roman capital to Constantinople by Constantine as their founding moment and reappraised the normative value of the pagan Hellenes, though the latter were still viewed as a group distinct from the Byzantines.[116] A distinct Greek identity re-emerged in the 11th century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204.[117] In the Empire of Nicaea, a small circle of the elite used the term "Hellene" as a term of self-identification.[118] After the Byzantines recaptured Constantinople, however, in 1261, Rhomaioi became again dominant as a term for self-description and there are few traces of Hellene (Έλληνας), such as in the writings of George Gemistos Plethon,[119] who abandoned Christianity and in whose writings culminated the secular tendency in the interest in the classical past.[117] However, it was the combination of Orthodox Christianity with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks' notion of themselves in the empire's twilight years.[117] These largely rhetorical expressions of Hellenic identity were confined in a very small circle and had no impact on the people, but were continued by Byzantine intellectuals who participated in the Italian Renaissance.[120] The interest in the Classical Greek heritage was complemented by a renewed emphasis on Greek Orthodox identity, which was reinforced in the late Medieval and Ottoman Greeks' links with their fellow Orthodox Christians in the Russian Empire. These were further strengthened following the fall of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461, after which and until the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29 hundreds of thousands of Pontic Greeks fled or migrated from the Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands to southern Russia and the Russian South Caucasus (see also Greeks in Russia, Greeks in Armenia, Greeks in Georgia, and Caucasian Greeks).[121]

Ottoman Empire

Engraving of a Greek merchant by Cesare Vecellio (16th century).
The San Giorgio dei Greci church with the leaning tower in Venice.
Basilius Bessarion (1395/1403–1472),

Following the Fall of Constantinople on 29 May 1453, many Greeks sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for the West, particularly Italy, Central Europe, Germany and Russia.[111] Greeks are greatly credited for the European cultural revolution, later called, the Renaissance. In Greek-inhabited territory itself, Greeks came to play a leading role in the Ottoman Empire, due in part to the fact that the central hub of the empire, politically, culturally, and socially, was based on Western Thrace and Greek Macedonia, both in Northern Greece, and of course was centred on the mainly Greek-populated, former Byzantine capital, Constantinople. As a direct consequence of this situation, Greek-speakers came to play a hugely important role in the Ottoman trading and diplomatic establishment, as well as in the church. Added to this, in the first half of the Ottoman period men of Greek origin made up a significant proportion of the Ottoman army, navy, and state bureaucracy, having been levied as adolescents (along with especially Albanians and Serbs) into Ottoman service through the devshirme. Many Ottomans of Greek (or Albanian or Serb) origin were therefore to be found within the Ottoman forces which governed the provinces, from Ottoman Egypt, to Ottomans occupied Yemen and Algeria, frequently as provincial governors.

The statue of Rigas Feraios in front of the University of Athens.

For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire's millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of national groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin.[122] The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi,[123] (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.[124] There were, however, many Greeks who escaped the second-class status of Christians inherent in the Ottoman millet system, according to which Muslims were explicitly awarded senior status and preferential treatment. These Greeks either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Greek Orthodox protector, the Russian Empire, or simply converted to Islam, often only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto-Christian. The most notable examples of large-scale conversion to Turkish Islam among those today defined as Greek Muslims—excluding those who had to convert as a matter of course on being recruited through the devshirme—were to be found in Crete (Cretan Turks), Greek Macedonia (for example among the Vallahades of western Macedonia), and among Pontic Greeks in the Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands. Several Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim (r 1517–1520), whose mother Gülbahar Hatun was a Pontic Greek.

Adamantios Korais, leading figure of the Greek enlightenment

The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce exemplified in the Phanariotes.[125] It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.[126] Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821, the three most important centres of Greek learning were situated in Chios, Smyrna and Aivali, all three major centres of Greek commerce.[126] Greek success was also favoured by Greek domination of the Eastern Orthodox church.

Modern

The cover of Hermes o Logios, a Greek literary publication of the late 18th and early 19th century with major contribution to the Modern Greek Enlightenment.

The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any native Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840.[127] A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange, although most of the Greeks displaced (over a million of the total 1.5 million) had already been driven out by the time the agreement was signed.[note 2][128] The Greek genocide, in particular the harsh removal of Pontian Greeks from the southern shore area of the Black Sea, contemporaneous with and following the failed Greek Asia Minor Campaign, was part of this process of Turkification of the Ottoman Empire and the placement of its economy and trade, then largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.[129]

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