Apostolic Age, Christianity consisted of an indefinite number of local Churches that in the initial years looked to Jerusalem as its main centre and point of reference. (See also
Jerusalem in Christianity and
Early centers of Christianity) Some found their way to Antioch, where they undertook
evangelical efforts, and to whom the term "Christians" was first used.
Before the outbreak of the
First Jewish–Roman War (66-73 AD) and the destruction of
Herod's Temple in 70 by
Titus, Christians led by
Simeon fled to
 where they remained until 135.
The Jews of Judea again revolted against Rome in the
Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136). By or during that time, the Christians had returned to Jerusalem. However, to punish the Jews for their revolt and to prevent further unrest, Jerusalem was made a
Roman colony and renamed
Aelia Capitolina by
Hadrian. In 135, the
Marcus as the first bishop of the renamed Church of
Aelia Capitolina. He was the first gentile bishop of the Church of Jerusalem (or Aelia Capitolina), all the previous ones having been Jewish.
 The persecution of Jews by Roman authorities in
Judea increased, with most of the Jewish and Christian population of Judea being enslaved and dispersed throughout the Roman Empire. The importance and place of Jerusalem in the life of the Christian Church diminished, though a Jewish and Christian remnant always remained in the city and the land.
Despite the strife, persecutions and meager population, bishops continued to be elected or named.
Eusebius of Caesarea provides the names of an unbroken succession of thirty-six Bishops of Jerusalem up to the year 324. The first sixteen of these bishops were Jewish—from
James the Just to
Judas († 135)—and the remainder were Gentiles.
Caesarea continued to appoint the bishops of
Aelia Capitolina until 325.
First Council of Nicaea in 325, though the
bishop of Aelia Capitolina was still subordinate to the
Caesarea, the Council accorded the bishop a certain undefined precedence in its seventh
In a decree issued from the seventh session of the
Fourth Ecumenical Council (the
Council of Chalcedon) in 451 the
Bishop of Jerusalem was elevated to the rank of
Patriarch, ranked fifth after the Sees of
Pentarchy). Since then, the Church of Jerusalem has remained an
autocephalous Church. Jerusalem was established as a patriarchate because of the holiness of the place; the special significance acquired between the First and Fourth Ecumenical Councils; the erection of magnificent churches; the conversion of a large proportion of the population of Roman and Byzantine Syria-Palestina to Christianity; the coming together of
pilgrims from around the world; the importance of outstanding bishops, monks, and teachers of the Church of Jerusalem; the struggles of the
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre on behalf of Orthodoxy; and the support of various Emperors of Byzantium.
The Persians occupied Jerusalem in 614 and took Patriarch
Zachariah prisoner, along with the
palladium of Christianity, the Precious Cross.
Chrysostomos Papadopoulos writes in his history of the Patriarchate: "The Churches and the monasteries, inside and outside Jerusalem, were destroyed; the Christians were brutally slaughtered … thousands of prisoners purchased by Jews were slaughtered. Anything good that existed was destroyed or was plundered by the invaders. The monks were slaughtered mercilessly, especially those of
St Savvas Monastery."
In 637, after a long
siege of Jerusalem, Patriarch
Sophronius surrendered Jerusalem to
Umar, but secured the
Covenant of Umar I, which recognised Christian rights to protection. In 638, the
Armenian Apostolic Church began appointing its own
bishop in Jerusalem.
After 638, however, Christians suffered many persecutions. Christian shrines were repeatedly ransacked and defaced by the successors of Umur, and there was great persecution all around.Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (1007–1009), a schizophrenic, named the "
Nero of Egypt" for his merciless acts. He persecuted ferociously both Christians and
Jews. He ordered that in public Jews were to wear masks representing the head of an ox and bells around their necks; Christians were to wear mourning apparel and crosses one yard in length. Also, Al-Hakim ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In the eleventh century, the Caliph
Ali az-Zahir, under a treaty with Byzantium, permitted the reconstruction of the shrines.
The most deadly persecution occurred during the time of the Fatamid
Great Schism of 1054, the
Patriarch of Jerusalem joined those of
Alexandria as the
Eastern Orthodox Church. All Christians in the Holy Land came under the jurisdiction of the
Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem.
In 1099, the
Jerusalem, setting up the
Kingdom of Jerusalem and establishing a Latin hierarchy under a
Latin Patriarch, and expelling the Orthodox Patriarch. The Latin Patriarch resided in Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187, while Greek Patriarchs continued to be appointed, but resided in
Constantinople. In 1187, the Crusaders were forced to flee Jerusalem, and the Orthodox Patriarch returned to Jerusalem. The
Catholic Church continued to appoint Latin Patricarchs, though the office holder resided in Rome until 1847, when they were permitted to return to the Middle East by the Ottoman authorities.
Orthodox Patriarch is the uninterrupted line of Apostolic succession to the see of Jerusalem.
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, which is closely linked to the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, remains the custodian of many of the Christian
Holy places in the
Holy Land, sometimes jointly with the
Roman Catholic Church and the
Oriental Churches (
Armenian Orthodox Christians).
Flag of the Patriarchate with the letters "ΤΦ" (
) representing the word "taphos" (tomb or sepulchre)
Lately there has been criticism of the church leadership by some of the
Palestinian members (known as
Arab Orthodox) who accuse the Greek-speaking and largely Greek-born leadership of squandering their money and treating their Palestinian members as second-class members.
The Palestinian members (Arab Orthodox) have expressed the desire to have local and or Palestinian leaders in positions of authority in their respective districts, in contrast to the tradition (since Ottoman times) of the higher authority positions being occupied by ethnic Greeks.Melkite Catholic Church, which has
Arabic as its official and liturgical language.
The Orthodox Church is sometimes compared unfavourably in this respect to the
Recent political controversies
Theophilos III became patriarch of the Church at a very difficult time in its history. The politics of the Middle East and the delicacy of the relations with the
Jordan continues to make the role and place of the Patriarch and the Patriarchate very challenging.
In 2005, a crisis occurred in the Church when
Patriarch Irenaios was
stripped of his authority as patriarch by the
Holy Synod of Jerusalem after he had allegedly sold church property in a very sensitive area of East Jerusalem to
locum tenens (steward) until the election of a new patriarch was
Metropolitan Cornelius of
Petra. On August 22, 2005, the Holy Synod of the Church of Jerusalem unanimously elected Theophilos, the former Archbishop of
Tabor, as the 141st Patriarch of Jerusalem.
The Patriarchate continues to be the subject of continuing allegations of political impropriety, from various political sources. Theophilos's criticsIsrael owing to his ties with key United States officials, such as former
George Tenet (who is Theophilos's cousin ), whom he reportedly met through the
Greek lobby in the United States. They note that, remarkably,
US Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice held a meeting with Theophilos at her request during a recent trip to Israel. On the other hand, it has also been reported that he, as then Superior of the
Holy Sepulcher, merely showed Secretary Rice the
holy sites, as he did for President
Vladimir Putin of Russia and other dignitaries visiting the Holy Land.
claim that he was favored by
For some time the Israeli Government withheld recognition of Theophilos as the new Patriarch, and continued to only recognize Irenaios as Patriarch. This position has been criticised as defying the unanimous decision by representatives of all Orthodox Churches meeting at the
Phanar at the call of the
Ecumenical Patriarch withdrawing communion from Irineos and recognizing Theophilos's canonical election.
Israel's refusal to recognise the Patriarch's temporal role, had inhibited the Patriarch's ability to take the Government to court and froze Patriarchal bank accounts. This in turn threatened the maintenance of the
Holy Places and the Patriarchate school system with 40,000 students. It has been alleged that the origins of the dispute are part of a forty-year attempt by Israeli settler organizations and politicians to open up the Patriarchate's extensive land holdings worth estimated hundreds of millions of dollars. The Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz reported on February 4, 2007 that two Ministers in the Israeli Government offered to recognize Theophilos if he would give up control of several valuable properties. The Israeli press reports that senior officials of the Israeli government may have been involved in a fraudulent real estate transaction with the deposed Patriarch Irenaios and are afraid of the consequences of court action.
Israel refused to renew
visas of many of the Greek clergy, which threatened to create to a serious crisis within the Church, as most of the monks are Greek citizens. Patriarch Theophilos applied to the Israeli Supreme Court in an effort to gain civil recognition. The Court was due to give a decision in mid-2006, but delayed giving a decision twice since then. A decision was due in January 2007, but the Israeli government again requested a further delay in the case.
In May 2007, the Government of Jordan revoked its previous recognition of Theophilos III, but on 12 June 2007 the Jordanian cabinet reversed its decision and announced that it is once again officially recognising Theophilos as patriarch.
Theodosios (Hanna) of Sebastia has also called for a boycott of Theophilos.
In December 2007, the Israeli government finally granted Theophilos full recognition. Irenaios appealed this decision to the Israeli Supreme Court,
 but that court ruled in favor of Theophilos.