Greece in the Roman era

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This map of the island Crete before the coast of Greece was published after 1681 by Nicolaes Visscher II (1649-1702). Visscher based this map on a map by the Danish cartographer Johann Lauremberg (1590-1658)
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Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era). It saw its beginnings with the Roman victory over the Corinthians, at the Battle of Corinth (146 BC). The definitive occupation of the Greek world by Rome was with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when the future emperor Augustus defeated Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony, the next year taking over Alexandria, the last great center of Hellenistic Greece.[1] It continued with the adoption of the city of Byzantium by the Emperor Constantine the Great as the capital of the Roman Empire (as Nova Roma, later Constantinople) in AD 330. After this date, the Eastern Empire became largely Greek speaking.

Early Roman history

The Greek peninsula first came under Roman rule in 146 BC after the Battle of Corinth when Macedonia became a Roman province, while southern Greece came under the surveillance of Macedonia's prefect. However, some Greek poleis managed to maintain partial independence and avoid taxation. The Kingdom of Pergamon was in principle added to this territory in 133 BC when King Attalus III left his territories to the Roman people in his will.[2] However, the Romans were slow in securing their claim and Aristonicus led a revolt with the help of Blossius. This was put down in 129 BC, when Pergamon was divided among Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia.

This map shows how Rome conquered Greece.

Athens and other Greek cities revolted in 88 BC, and the uprising was crushed by the Roman general Sulla. The Roman civil wars devastated the land even further, until Augustus organized the peninsula as the province of Achaea in 27 BC.

Greece, initially economically devastated, began to rise economically after the wars. The Greek cities of Asia Minor recovered more quickly at first than the cities on the Greek peninsula, which were heavily damaged by the forces of Sulla. The Romans invested heavily however, and rebuilt these cities. Corinth became the capital of the new province of Achaea, while Athens prospered as a center of philosophy and learning.

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беларуская: Рымская Грэцыя
български: Римска Гърция
español: Grecia romana
Esperanto: Romia Grekio
français: Grèce romaine
italiano: Grecia romana
Lingua Franca Nova: Elas roman
português: Grécia romana
română: Grecia romană
српски / srpski: Римска Грчка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rimska Grčka
українська: Римська Греція