Greece

Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Ellinikí Dimokratía  ( Greek)
Motto: « Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος»
Elefthería í Thánatos
"Freedom or Death"
Anthem: « Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν»
Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherían
"Hymn to Freedom"
Location of  Greece  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Greece  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [ Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E / 37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.967; 23.717
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion Eastern Orthodoxy
Demonym Greek
Government Unitary parliamentary
republic
•  President
Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Alexis Tsipras
Nikos Voutsis
Legislature Hellenic Parliament
Formation of modern Greece
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration in the First National Assembly at Epidaurus)
3 February 1830
11 June 1975
Area
• Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi) [1] ( 95th)
• Water (%)
0.8669
Population
• 2016 estimate
11,183,716 Increase [2]
• 2011 census
10,816,286 [3] ( 80th)
• Density
82 [4]/km2 (212.4/sq mi) ( 125th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$300 billion [5] ( 57th)
• Per capita
$27,775 [5] ( 47th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$204 billion [5] ( 52nd)
• Per capita
$18,945 [5] ( 38th)
Gini (2016) Negative increase 34.3 [6]
medium ·  60th
HDI (2015) Increase 0.866 [7]
very high ·  29th
Currency Euro ( ) ( EUR)
Time zone Eastern European Time ( UTC+2)
• Summer ( DST)
Eastern European Summer Time ( UTC+3)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy ( AD)
Drives on the right
Calling code +30
ISO 3166 code GR
Internet TLD .gra
.ελ
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.

Greece ( Greek: Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as Hellas, is a country in Southern Europe [8], with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km (8,498 mi) in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands (including the Dodecanese and Cyclades), Thrace, Crete, and the Ionian Islands.

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization, [a] being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, and Western drama. [12] From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great rapidly conquering much of the ancient world, spreading Greek culture and science from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indus River. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, wherein the Greek language and culture were dominant. The Greek Orthodox Church also shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. [13] Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. [14]

Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities (precursor to the European Union) and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. It is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF). Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance [b] classify it as a middle power. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.

Etymology

The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages, locations and cultures. The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada ( Greek: Ελλάς or Ελλάδα (in polytonic: Ἑλλάς, Ἑλλάδα) About this sound  Elláda [24] [25] [26] [27]) and its official name is the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Ellinikí Dimokratía [eliniˈci ðimokraˈti.a]. In English, however, the country is usually called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia (as used by the Romans) and literally means 'the land of the Greeks'.

Other Languages
Acèh: Yunani
Адыгэбзэ: Алыджей
адыгабзэ: Урымые
Afrikaans: Griekeland
Alemannisch: Griechenland
አማርኛ: ግሪክ (አገር)
Ænglisc: Grēcland
العربية: اليونان
aragonés: Grecia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܘܢ
armãneashti: Gârția
arpetan: Grèce
asturianu: Grecia
Avañe'ẽ: Gyresia
авар: Греция
Aymar aru: Grisya
azərbaycanca: Yunanıstan
تۆرکجه: یونان
বাংলা: গ্রিস
Bân-lâm-gú: Hi-lia̍p
башҡортса: Греция
беларуская: Грэцыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Грэцыя
भोजपुरी: यूनान
Bikol Central: Gresya
Bislama: Greece
български: Гърция
Boarisch: Griachaland
བོད་ཡིག: ཀེ་རི་སི།
bosanski: Grčka
brezhoneg: Gres (bro)
буряад: Греци
català: Grècia
Чӑвашла: Греци
Cebuano: Gresya
čeština: Řecko
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Grecia
Chi-Chewa: Greece
chiShona: Greece
chiTumbuka: Greece
corsu: Grecia
Cymraeg: Gwlad Groeg
davvisámegiella: Greika
Deutsch: Griechenland
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޔޫނާން
dolnoserbski: Grichiska
ཇོང་ཁ: གྲྀས
eesti: Kreeka
Ελληνικά: Ελλάδα
español: Grecia
Esperanto: Grekio
estremeñu: Grecia
euskara: Grezia
eʋegbe: Greece
فارسی: یونان
Fiji Hindi: Greece
føroyskt: Grikkaland
français: Grèce
Frysk: Grikelân
Fulfulde: Yunan
furlan: Grecie
Gaeilge: An Ghréig
Gaelg: Yn Ghreag
Gagauz: Grețiya
Gàidhlig: A' Ghrèig
galego: Grecia
贛語: 希臘
Gĩkũyũ: Ngiriki
ગુજરાતી: ગ્રીસ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ग्रीस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hî-lia̍p
хальмг: Грисин Орн
한국어: 그리스
Hausa: Greek
Hawaiʻi: Helene
Հայերեն: Հունաստան
हिन्दी: यूनान
hornjoserbsce: Grjekska
hrvatski: Grčka
Ido: Grekia
Igbo: Greece
Ilokano: Gresia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গ্রীস
Bahasa Indonesia: Yunani
interlingua: Grecia
Interlingue: Grecia
Ирон: Грекъ
isiZulu: IGreki
íslenska: Grikkland
italiano: Grecia
עברית: יוון
Basa Jawa: Yunani
kalaallisut: Grækerit Nunaat
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಗ್ರೀಸ್
Kapampangan: Gresya
къарачай-малкъар: Греция
ქართული: საბერძნეთი
kaszëbsczi: Greckô
қазақша: Грекия
kernowek: Pow Grek
Kinyarwanda: Ubugereki
Kirundi: Ubugiriki
Kiswahili: Ugiriki
коми: Эллада
Kongo: Gelesi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Grès
Kurdî: Yewnanistan
Ladino: Gresia
лезги: Греция
لۊری شومالی: یوٙنان
latgaļu: Grekeja
Latina: Graecia
latviešu: Grieķija
Lëtzebuergesch: Griicheland
lietuvių: Graikija
Ligure: Greçia
Limburgs: Griekeland
lingála: Gresi
Livvinkarjala: Gretsii
la .lojban.: xesygu'e
Luganda: Buyonaani
lumbaart: Grecia
मैथिली: यूनान
македонски: Грција
Malagasy: Grisy
മലയാളം: ഗ്രീസ്
Malti: Greċja
Māori: Kirihi
मराठी: ग्रीस
მარგალური: საბერძნეთი
مصرى: اليونان
مازِرونی: یونان
Bahasa Melayu: Greece
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hĭ-lé-nà̤
Mirandés: Grécia
мокшень: Грекмастор
монгол: Грек
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂရိနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Grecia
Dorerin Naoero: Grit
Nederlands: Griekenland
Nedersaksies: Griekenlaand
नेपाली: यूनान
नेपाल भाषा: ग्रीस
日本語: ギリシャ
Napulitano: Grecia
нохчийн: Греци
Nordfriisk: Griichenlönj
Norfuk / Pitkern: Griese
norsk: Hellas
norsk nynorsk: Hellas
Nouormand: Grêce
Novial: Grekia
occitan: Grècia
олык марий: Греций
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଗ୍ରୀସ
Oromoo: Giriik
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Yunoniston
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯੂਨਾਨ
Pangasinan: Gresia
پنجابی: یونان
Papiamentu: Gresia
پښتو: يونان
Patois: Griis
Перем Коми: Эллада
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ក្រិក
Picard: Grèche
Piemontèis: Grecia
Tok Pisin: Gris
Plattdüütsch: Grekenland
polski: Grecja
Ποντιακά: Ελλάδα
português: Grécia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Yunanstan
qırımtatarca: Yunanistan
Ripoarisch: Jrihscheland
română: Grecia
rumantsch: Grezia
Runa Simi: Grisya
русиньскый: Ґреція
русский: Греция
саха тыла: Греция
Gagana Samoa: Eleni
संस्कृतम्: यवनदेशः
sardu: Grèghia
Scots: Greece
Seeltersk: Griechenlound
Sesotho sa Leboa: Greece
shqip: Greqia
sicilianu: Grecia
සිංහල: ග්‍රීසිය
Simple English: Greece
سنڌي: يونان
SiSwati: IGrikhi
slovenčina: Grécko
slovenščina: Grčija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Грьци
ślůnski: Grecyjo
Soomaaliga: Giriiga
کوردی: یۆنان
Sranantongo: Grikikondre
српски / srpski: Грчка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Grčka
Basa Sunda: Yunani
suomi: Kreikka
svenska: Grekland
Tagalog: Gresya
Taqbaylit: Legrig
tarandíne: Grecie
татарча/tatarça: Греция
తెలుగు: గ్రీస్
tetun: Grésia
тоҷикӣ: Юнон
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎪᎢᎯ
Türkçe: Yunanistan
Türkmençe: Gresiýa
Twi: Hela
удмурт: Греция
українська: Греція
اردو: یونان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گرېتسىيە
Vahcuengh: Sihla
vèneto: Gresia
vepsän kel’: Grekanma
Tiếng Việt: Hy Lạp
Volapük: Grikän
Võro: Kreeka
West-Vlams: Grieknland
Winaray: Gresya
Wolof: Girees
吴语: 希腊
Xitsonga: Greece
ייִדיש: גריכנלאנד
Yorùbá: Gríìsì
粵語: 希臘
Zazaki: Yunanıstan
Zeêuws: Griek'nland
žemaitėška: Graikėjė
中文: 希腊
डोटेली: ग्रीस
Kabɩyɛ: Krɛsɩ