Grebe

Grebes
Temporal range: Oligocene-Holocene, 25–0 Ma
Podiceps nigricollis 001.jpg
Black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis nigricollis), in non-breeding plumage
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Clade:Aequorlitornithes
Clade:Mirandornithes
Order:Podicipediformes
Fürbringer, 1888
Family:Podicipedidae
Bonaparte, 1831
Genera

A grebe (b/) is a member of the order Podicipediformes and the only type of bird associated with this order.[1]

Grebes are a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. This order contains only a single family, the Podicipedidae, containing 22 species in 6 extant genera.

Description

Diving grebe

Grebes are small to medium-large in size, have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. Although they can run for a short distance, they are prone to falling over, since they have their feet placed far back on the body.

Grebes have narrow wings, and some species are reluctant to fly; indeed, two South American species are completely flightless.[2] They respond to danger by diving rather than flying, and are in any case much less wary than ducks. Extant species range in size from the least grebe, at 120 grams (4.3 oz) and 23.5 cm (9.3 inches), to the great grebe, at 1.7 kg (3.8 lbs) and 71 cm (28 inches).

The North American and Eurasian species are all, of necessity, migratory over much or all of their ranges, and those species that winter at sea are also seen regularly in flight. Even the small freshwater pied-billed grebe of North America has occurred as a transatlantic vagrant to Europe on more than 30 occasions.

Bills vary from short and thick to long and pointed, depending on the diet, which ranges from fish to freshwater insects and crustaceans. The feet are always large, with broad lobes on the toes and small webs connecting the front three toes. The hind toe also has a small lobe. Recent experimental work has shown that these lobes work like the hydrofoil blades of a propeller.[2] Curiously, the same mechanism apparently evolved independently in the extinct Cretaceous-age Hesperornithiformes, which are totally unrelated birds.

Grebes have unusual plumage. It is dense and waterproof, and on the underside the feathers are at right-angles to the skin, sticking straight out to begin with and curling at the tip. By pressing their feathers against the body, grebes can adjust their buoyancy. Often, they swim low in the water with just the head and neck exposed.

In the non-breeding season, grebes are plain-coloured in dark browns and whites. However, most have ornate and distinctive breeding plumages, often developing chestnut markings on the head area, and perform elaborate display rituals.[2] The young, particularly those of the genus Podiceps, are often striped and retain some of their juvenile plumage even after reaching full size. In the breeding season, they mate at freshwater lakes and ponds, but some species spend their non-breeding season along seacoasts.[1]

When preening, grebes eat their own feathers, and feed them to their young. The function of this behaviour is uncertain but it is believed to assist with pellet formation,[3] and to reduce their vulnerability to gastric parasites.

Grebes make floating nests of plant material concealed among reeds on the surface of the water. The young are precocial, and able to swim from birth.[2]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Dobbertjies
العربية: غطاسيات
asturianu: Podicipedidae
azərbaycanca: Maygülülər
تۆرکجه: مایگولولر
башҡортса: Podicipedidae
беларуская: Паганкавыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паганкавыя
български: Гмурецови
brezhoneg: Plomer (evn)
Cebuano: Podicipedidae
čeština: Potápky
Cymraeg: Gwyach
davvisámegiella: Buovččat
Deutsch: Lappentaucher
eesti: Pütlased
español: Podicipedidae
Esperanto: Greboj
فارسی: کشیم
français: Podicipedidae
Gaeilge: Foitheach
ગુજરાતી: ડુબકી કુટુંબ
한국어: 논병아리목
Հայերեն: Սուզակներ
hrvatski: Gnjurci
Bahasa Indonesia: Burung Grebe
interlingua: Podicipedidae
íslenska: Goðar
italiano: Podicipedidae
עברית: טבלניים
Kiswahili: Kibisi
kurdî: Noqavok
latviešu: Dūkuru dzimta
lietuvių: Kraginiai
македонски: Нуркачи
Bahasa Melayu: Grebe
Nederlands: Futen
Nordfriisk: Dükern
norsk nynorsk: Dukkarfamilien
پنجابی: ڈبکنی
português: Podicipedidae
русиньскый: Пірникозовы
русский: Поганковые
Scots: Grebe
Simple English: Grebe
slovenčina: Potápkotvaré
slovenščina: Ponirki
کوردی: نوقاڤۆک
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gnjurci
suomi: Uikut
svenska: Doppingar
татарча/tatarça: Чомга кошлар
Türkçe: Batağan
українська: Пірникозові
Tiếng Việt: Họ Chim lặn
文言: 鸊鷉
Winaray: Podicipedidae
粵語: 鷿鷈
Zeêuws: Futen
中文: 鷿鷈科
Lingua Franca Nova: Podisipediformo