Grand Canyon

Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon view from Pima Point 2010.jpg
The Colorado River flowing through the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon is located in Arizona
Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Location within Arizona
Grand Canyon is located in the United States
Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Location within the United States
Grand Canyon is located in North America
Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Location within North America
Floor elevationapprox. 2,600 feet (800 m)
Length277 miles (446 km)
Width4 to 18 miles (6.4 to 29.0 km)
Age5–6 million years[1]
LocationArizona, U.S.
Coordinates36°18′N 112°36′W / 36°18′N 112°36′W / 36.3; -112.6
RiversColorado River

The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa;[2] Yavapai: Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Bidááʼ Haʼaztʼiʼ Tsékooh,[3][4] Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and attains a depth of over a mile (6,093 feet or 1,857 meters).[5]

The canyon and adjacent rim are contained within Grand Canyon National Park, the Kaibab National Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, the Hualapai Indian Reservation, the Havasupai Indian Reservation and the Navajo Nation. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, and visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery.

Nearly two billion years of Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted.[6] While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists,[7] several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago.[1][8][9] Since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs, simultaneously deepening and widening the canyon.

For thousands of years, the area has been continuously inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. The Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, and made pilgrimages to it.[10] The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540.[11]


Image of the Grand Canyon and surrounding area taken from the International Space Station
The Grand Canyon from an airplane, with the Colorado River visible
Grand Canyon, Arizona, Nevada, Lake Powell to Lake Mead, June 27, 2017, Sentinel-2 true-color satellite image. Scale 1:450,000.

The Grand Canyon is a river valley in the Colorado Plateau that exposes uplifted Proterozoic and Paleozoic strata, and is also one of the six distinct physiographic sections of the Colorado Plateau province. It is not the deepest canyon in the world (Kali Gandaki Gorge in Nepal is much deeper). However, the Grand Canyon is known for its visually overwhelming size and its intricate and colorful landscape. Geologically, it is significant because of the thick sequence of ancient rocks that are well preserved and exposed in the walls of the canyon. These rock layers record much of the early geologic history of the North American continent.

Uplift associated with mountain formation later moved these sediments thousands of feet upward and created the Colorado Plateau. The higher elevation has also resulted in greater precipitation in the Colorado River drainage area, but not enough to change the Grand Canyon area from being semi-arid.[12] The uplift of the Colorado Plateau is uneven, and the Kaibab Plateau that Grand Canyon bisects is over one thousand feet (300 m) higher at the North Rim (about 1,000 ft or 300 m) than at the South Rim. Almost all runoff from the North Rim (which also gets more rain and snow) flows toward the Grand Canyon, while much of the runoff on the plateau behind the South Rim flows away from the canyon (following the general tilt). The result is deeper and longer tributary washes and canyons on the north side and shorter and steeper side canyons on the south side.

Temperatures on the North Rim are generally lower than those on the South Rim because of the greater elevation (averaging 8,000 feet or 2,400 metres above sea level).[13] Heavy rains are common on both rims during the summer months. Access to the North Rim via the primary route leading to the canyon (State Route 67) is limited during the winter season due to road closures.[14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Grand Canyon
አማርኛ: ታላቁ ገደል
العربية: غراند كانيون
aragonés: Gran Canyón
asturianu: Gran Cañón
azərbaycanca: Böyük Kanyon
Bân-lâm-gú: Grand Canyon
беларуская: Вялікі Каньён
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вялікі Каньён
български: Гранд Каньон
brezhoneg: Kanienn Veur
català: Gran Canyó
čeština: Grand Canyon
Cymraeg: Grand Canyon
ދިވެހިބަސް: ގްރޭންޑް ކެންޔަން
Ελληνικά: Γκραντ Κάνυον
español: Gran Cañón
Esperanto: Granda Kanjono
føroyskt: Grand Canyon
français: Grand Canyon
galego: Gran Canón
贛語: 大峽谷
հայերեն: Մեծ կիրճ
Bahasa Indonesia: Grand Canyon
íslenska: Miklagljúfur
italiano: Grand Canyon
ქართული: დიდი კანიონი
қазақша: Үлкен Каньон
Кыргызча: Чоң Каньон
Latina: Grand Canyon
latviešu: Lielais kanjons
Lëtzebuergesch: Grand Canyon
lietuvių: Didysis kanjonas
Lingua Franca Nova: Canion Grande
magyar: Grand Canyon
македонски: Голем Кањон
Bahasa Melayu: Grand Canyon
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂရင်းကင်ညွန်
Nederlands: Grand Canyon
नेपाल भाषा: ग्रान्द क्यानन
norsk nynorsk: Grand Canyon
occitan: Grand Canyon
Oromoo: Grand Canyon
Patois: Gran Kianyan
português: Grand Canyon
română: Grand Canyon
саха тыла: Гранд-Каньон
Seeltersk: Grand Canyon
sicilianu: Granni Canyon
Simple English: Grand Canyon
slovenčina: Veľký kaňon
slovenščina: Veliki kanjon
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Veliki kanjon Kolorada
svenska: Grand Canyon
Türkçe: Büyük Kanyon
українська: Великий каньйон
vèneto: Grand Canyon
Tiếng Việt: Grand Canyon
Winaray: Grand Canyon
粵語: 大峽谷
中文: 大峽谷