Grammar

In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules[1] for using that language and these rules constitute that language's grammar. The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native languageacquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves a greater degree of explicit instruction.[2] Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use.

The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behaviour of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", therefore, may have several meanings. It may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation.[3] Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences). Or it may refer to the rules of a particular, relatively well-defined variety of English (such as standard English for a particular region).

A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may also be referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or simply "a grammar" (see History of English grammars). A fully explicit grammar that exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a language is called a descriptive grammar. This kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while promoting others. For example, preposition stranding occurs widely in Germanic languages and has a long history in English. John Dryden, however, objected to it (without explanation),[4] leading other English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use.[5]

Outside linguistics, the term grammar is often used in a rather different sense. In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not typically consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography, the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to prescriptive grammar only and excluding those aspects of a language's grammar that are not subject to variation or debate. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to."[6]

Etymology

The word grammar is derived from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη (grammatikē technē), which means "art of letters", from γράμμα (gramma), "letter", itself from γράφειν (graphein), "to draw, to write".[7] The same Greek root also appears in graphics, grapheme, and photograph.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Grammatika
Alemannisch: Grammatik
አማርኛ: ሰዋስው
العربية: قواعد لغة
aragonés: Gramatica
asturianu: Gramática
azərbaycanca: Qrammatika
বাংলা: ব্যাকরণ
Bân-lâm-gú: Bûn-hoat
башҡортса: Грамматика
беларуская: Граматыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Граматыка
български: Граматика
Boarisch: Grammatik
bosanski: Gramatika
brezhoneg: Yezhadur
català: Gramàtica
Чӑвашла: Грамматика
čeština: Gramatika
Cymraeg: Gramadeg
dansk: Grammatik
Deutsch: Grammatik
eesti: Grammatika
Ελληνικά: Γραμματική
эрзянь: Грамматика
español: Gramática
Esperanto: Gramatiko
estremeñu: Gramática
euskara: Gramatika
Fiji Hindi: Vyakaran
føroyskt: Mállæra
français: Grammaire
Frysk: Grammatika
Gaelg: Grammeydys
Gàidhlig: Gràmar
galego: Gramática
贛語: 文法
한국어: 문법
हिन्दी: व्याकरण
hrvatski: Gramatika
Ilokano: Gramatika
Bahasa Indonesia: Tata bahasa
interlingua: Grammatica
Interlingue: Grammatica
isiXhosa: Igramma
íslenska: Málfræði
italiano: Grammatica
עברית: דקדוק
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ
Kapampangan: Garalita
къарачай-малкъар: Грамматика
ქართული: გრამატიკა
қазақша: Грамматика
Kinyarwanda: Ikibonezamvugo
Kiswahili: Sarufi
kurdî: Rêziman
Кыргызча: Грамматика
Ladino: Gramatika
Latina: Grammatica
latviešu: Gramatika
lietuvių: Gramatika
Limburgs: Grammair
la .lojban.: gerna
lumbaart: Grammatica
magyar: Nyelvtan
македонски: Граматика
മലയാളം: വ്യാകരണം
मराठी: व्याकरण
მარგალური: გრამატიკა
Bahasa Melayu: Tatabahasa
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngṳ̄-huák
Mirandés: Gramática
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သဒ္ဒါ
Nederlands: Grammatica
नेपाली: व्याकरण
नेपाल भाषा: भाय्‌लचं
日本語: 文法
Nordfriisk: Gramatik
norsk: Grammatikk
norsk nynorsk: Grammatikk
Novial: Gramatike
occitan: Gramatica
олык марий: Йылмылончыш
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Grammatika
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵਿਆਕਰਨ
Pangasinan: Grammar
پنجابی: گریمر
Patois: Grama
Перем Коми: Грамматика
ភាសាខ្មែរ: វេយ្យាករណ៍
Picard: Granmoère
Piemontèis: Gramàtica
Tok Pisin: Grama
Plattdüütsch: Grammatik
polski: Gramatyka
Ποντιακά: Γραμματική
português: Gramática
Qaraqalpaqsha: Grammatika
română: Gramatică
Runa Simi: Simi kamachiy
русиньскый: Ґраматіка
русский: Грамматика
саха тыла: Грамматика
संस्कृतम्: व्याकरणम्
Scots: Grammar
shqip: Gramatika
sicilianu: Grammàtica
සිංහල: ව්‍යාකරණ
Simple English: Grammar
سنڌي: گرامر
slovenščina: Slovnica
کوردی: ڕێزمان
српски / srpski: Граматика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gramatika
suomi: Kielioppi
svenska: Grammatik
Tagalog: Balarila
татарча/tatarça: Грамматика
తెలుగు: వ్యాకరణము
Türkçe: Dil bilgisi
українська: Граматика
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ pháp
Volapük: Gramat
文言: 語法
Winaray: Gramatika
吴语: 語法
ייִדיש: גראמאטיק
粵語: 文法
Zazaki: Gramer
Zeêuws: Grammaotica
žemaitėška: Gramatėka
中文: 语法