Gossypium

Cotton plant
Gossypium herbaceum 002.JPG
Flower of Gossypium herbaceum
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Rosids
Order:Malvales
Family:Malvaceae
Subfamily:Malvoideae
Tribe:Gossypieae
Genus:Gossypium
L.[1]
Type species
Gossypium arboreum
Species

See text.

Synonyms[1]
  • Erioxylum Rose & Standl.
  • Ingenhouzia DC.
  • Notoxylinon Lewton
  • Selera Ulbr.
  • Sturtia R.Br.
  • Thurberia A.Gray
  • Ultragossypium Roberty

Gossypium is a genus of flowering plants in the tribe Gossypieae of the mallow family, Malvaceae from which cotton is harvested. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Old and New Worlds. There are about 50 Gossypium species,[2] making it the largest genus in the tribe Gossypieae and new species continue to be discovered.[2] The name of the genus is derived from the Arabic word goz, which refers to a soft substance.[3]

Cotton is the primary natural fibre used by modern humans. Where cotton is cultivated it is a major oilseed crop and a main protein source for animal feed. Cotton is thus of great importance for agriculture, industry and trade, especially for tropical and subtropical countries in Africa, South America and Asia. Consequently, the genus Gossypium has long attracted the attention of scientists.

The origin of the genus Gossypium is dated to around 5–10 million years ago.[4] Gossypium species are distributed in arid to semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Generally shrubs or shrub-like plants, the species of this genus are extraordinarily diverse in morphology and adaptation, ranging from fire-adapted, herbaceous perennials in Australia to trees in Mexico.[2]

Cultivated cottons are perennial shrubs most often grown as annuals. Plants are 1–2 m high in modern cropping systems, sometimes higher in traditional, multiannual cropping systems, now largely disappearing. The leaves are broad and lobed, with three to five (or rarely seven) lobes. The seeds are contained in a capsule called a "boll", each seed surrounded by fibres of two types. These fibres are the more commercially interesting part of the plant and they are separated from the seed by a process called ginning. At the first ginning, the longer fibres, called staples, are removed and these are twisted together to form yarn for making thread and weaving into high quality textiles. At the second ginning, the shorter fibres, called "linters", are removed, and these are woven into lower quality textiles (which include the eponymous Lint). Commercial species of cotton plant are G. hirsutum (>90% of world production), G. barbadense (3–4%), G. arboreum and G. herbaceum (together, 2%). Many varieties of cotton have been developed by selective breeding and hybridization of these species. Experiments are ongoing to cross-breed various desirable traits of wild cotton species into the principal commercial species, such as resistance to insects and diseases, and drought tolerance. Cotton fibres occur naturally in colours of white, brown, green, and some mixing of these.

Most wild cottons are diploid, but a group of five species from America and Pacific islands are tetraploid, apparently due to a single hybridization event around 1.5 to 2 million years ago.[4] The tetraploid species are G. hirsutum, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum, G. barbadense, and G. darwinii.

Selected species

Subgenus Gossypium
Subgenus Houzingenia
Subgenus Karpas
Subgenus Sturtia

Formerly placed in genus Gossypium

  • Gossypioides brevilanatum (Hochr.) J.B.Hutch. (as G. brevilanatum Hochr.)
  • Gossypioides kirkii (Mast.) J.B.Hutch. (as Gossypium kirkii Mast.)
  • Kokia drynarioides (Seem.) Lewton (as G. drynarioides Seem.)[6]
Other Languages
Alemannisch: Baumwolle
العربية: جوسيبيوم
aragonés: Gossypium
armãneashti: Bumbacu
asturianu: Gossypium
azərbaycanca: Pambıq (bitki)
беларуская: Бавоўнік
български: Памук (род)
Boarisch: Baamwoi
bosanski: Gossypium
català: Cotoner
Чӑвашла: Çĕр мамăкĕ
Cebuano: Gossypium
čeština: Bavlník
Cymraeg: Gossypium
Deutsch: Baumwolle
Ελληνικά: Βαμβάκι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cutòṅ
español: Gossypium
Esperanto: Kotonujo
euskara: Kotoi-landare
français: Gossypium
galego: Algodoeiro
한국어: 목화속
հայերեն: Բամբակենի
hornjoserbsce: Bałmowc
italiano: Gossypium
ქართული: ბამბა (გვარი)
қазақша: Мақта (дақыл)
Kiswahili: Mpamba
Kreyòl ayisyen: Koton
Кыргызча: Гозо
latviešu: Kokvilnas augi
lietuvių: Vilnamedis
magyar: Gyapot
മലയാളം: ഗൊസ്സീപിയം
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဝါပင်
Nāhuatl: Ichcatl
Nederlands: Katoenplant
日本語: ワタ属
Nordfriisk: Buumol
occitan: Cotonièr
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gʻoʻza
پنجابی: چوگی (جنس)
Picard: Couton
Plattdüütsch: Boomwull
português: Algodoeiro
reo tahiti: Vavai
română: Gossypium
Runa Simi: Utku yura
русиньскый: Бавовна
русский: Хлопчатник
slovenčina: Bavlník
کوردی: لۆکە
српски / srpski: Памук (биљка)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pamuk (biljka)
suomi: Puuvillat
татарча/tatarça: Мамык (үсемлек)
తెలుగు: గాసిపియమ్
ไทย: ฝ้าย
удмурт: Хлопок
українська: Бавовник
Tiếng Việt: Chi Bông
Winaray: Gossypium
中文: 棉花屬