Gorgān Tower
Gorgān Tower
Gorgan is located in Iran
Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861; 54.43472UTC+04:30 (IDST)
ClimateGorgan at GEOnet Names Server

Gorgan (About this soundpronunciation ) (Persian: گرگان‎;[3] formerly Esterabad (استرآباد)[4][5]) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census; its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.[6]


There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras. Some other important Neolithic sites in the area are Yarim Tepe, Iran, and Sange Chaxmaq. Also, the nearby Shahroud Plain has many such sites. The number of confirmed Neolithic sites on the Gorgan Plain now totals more than fifty.[7]

Historic wall of Gorgan signs

According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace".[8] The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city.[9]

Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559–530 BC), its founder, or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC).

The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.

At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.[10]

Gorgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century.

In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli.[11][12]

"Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan".

Gorgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia (the Greater Khorasan) or the Tabaristan regions.

Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty.

Other Languages
العربية: جرجان
asturianu: Gorgán
azərbaycanca: Gürgan (İran)
تۆرکجه: گورگان
беларуская: Гарган
български: Горган
čeština: Gorgán
Deutsch: Gorgan
eesti: Gorgān
Ελληνικά: Γκοργκάν
español: Gorgán
Esperanto: Gurgano
euskara: Gorgan
فارسی: گرگان
français: Gorgan
한국어: 고르간
հայերեն: Գորգան
हिन्दी: गोर्गान
hrvatski: Gorgan
Ирон: Горган
italiano: Gorgan
kurdî: Gurgan
lietuvių: Gorganas
magyar: Gorgán
Malagasy: Gorgan
مصرى: جرجان
مازِرونی: گرگان
Bahasa Melayu: Gorgan
монгол: Горган
Nederlands: Gorgan
日本語: ゴルガーン
norsk nynorsk: Gorgan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Goʻrgon (shahar)
پنجابی: گرگان
polski: Gorgan
português: Gurgã
română: Gorgan
русский: Горган
Scots: Gorgan
slovenščina: Gorgan
српски / srpski: Горган
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Gorgan
suomi: Gorgān
svenska: Gorgan
тоҷикӣ: Гургон
Türkçe: Gürgan
Türkmençe: Gürgen
українська: Ґорґан
اردو: گرگان
Winaray: Gorgan
中文: 戈尔甘