Golf course

Aerial view of a golf course (Golfplatz Wittenbeck at the Baltic Sea, Germany)
Golf course features:
1 = tee box
2 = water hazard
3 = rough
4 = out of bounds
5 = bunker
6 = water hazard
7 = fairway
8 = putting green
9 = pin
10 = hole

A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played. It comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, a fairway, the rough and other hazards, and a green with a flagstick ("pin") and hole ("cup"). A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes. [1] Most courses contain 18 holes; some share fairways or greens, and a subset has nine holes, played twice per round. Par-3 courses consist of nine or 18 holes all of which have a par of three strokes.

Many older courses are links, often coastal. Courses are private, public, and municipally owned, and typically feature a pro shop. Many private courses are found at country clubs.

Etiquette is very important on Golf courses.

Design

Fountain pond at Seltenheim Golf Course Klagenfurt-Seltenheim, Austria

Although a specialty within landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is considered a separate field of study. Some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right, such as Robert Trent Jones, Jr.; others are professional golfers of high standing and demonstrated appreciation for golf course composition, such as Jack Nicklaus. The field is partially represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects, and the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects, though many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any such group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups. While golf courses often follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is increasingly the case as new courses are more likely to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps are almost always artificial, although other hazards may be natural.

Fairway at Lord Howe Golf Course, Lord Howe Island, NSW, Australia

The layout of a fairway follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes (nine and 18 being most common), their par values, and the number of holes of each par value per course. It is also preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, and to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is frequently a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes may share the same tee box, fairway, or even green. It is also common for separate tee-off points to be positioned for men, women, and amateurs, each one respectively lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" (holes 1-9) and a "back 9" (holes 10-18). On older courses (especially links courses, like the Old Course at St. Andrews), the holes may be laid out in one long loop, beginning and ending at the clubhouse, and thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" (heading out away from clubhouse) and the back 9 as "in" (heading back in toward the clubhouse). More recent courses (and especially inland courses) tend to be designed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse. This is partly for the convenience of the players and the club, as then it is easier to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9.

Water feature at the Shell Point Golf Course, Iona, Florida

A successful design is as visually pleasing as it is playable. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, paths, grasses, stonework, and woodwork, among other elements.

Par

Most golf courses have only par-3, -4, and -5 holes, though some courses include par-6 holes. (The Ananti CC and the Satsuki golf course in Sano, Japan are the only courses with par 7 holes.) [2] Typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows.

Men

  • Par 3 – 250 yards (230 m) and below
  • Par 4 – 251–450 yards (230–411 m)
  • Par 5 – 451–690 yards (412–631 m)
  • Par 6 – 691 yards (632 m) or more

Women

  • Par 3 – 210 yards (190 m) and below
  • Par 4 – 211–400 yards (193–366 m)
  • Par 5 – 401–575 yards (367–526 m)
  • Par 6 – 575 yards (526 m) or more

Harder or easier courses may have longer- or shorter-distance holes, respectively. Terrain can also be a factor, so that a long downhill hole might be rated par 4, but a shorter uphill or severely treacherous hole might be rated par 5. Tournament players will usually play from a longer-distance tee box (the Championship or Tournament tee) that is behind the standard men's tee, which increases the typical distance of each par; a par-3 hole can be up to 290 yards (270 m), and longer par-4 holes can measure up to 520 yards (480 m), which can also be accomplished by converting a par-5 hole into a long par-4 hole for tournament players. This compensates for the generally longer distance pro players can put on tee and fairway shots as compared to the average "bogey golfer".

Other Languages
العربية: ملعب غولف
български: Голф игрище
dansk: Golfbane
Deutsch: Golfplatz
Esperanto: Golfejo
français: Terrain de golf
한국어: 골프장
Bahasa Indonesia: Fairway
íslenska: Golfvöllur
italiano: Campo da golf
lietuvių: Golfo aikštynas
Nederlands: Golfbaan
日本語: ゴルフ場
norsk: Golfbane
polski: Pole golfowe
português: Campo de golfe
Simple English: Golf course
svenska: Golfbana
Tiếng Việt: Sân golf